Table of Content

    15 April 2023, Volume 42 Issue 02
    Invited Papers
    A review of Paleolithic raw material exploitation studies in China
    SHEN Xuke, LI Ting, ZHANG Dongju
    2023, 42(02):  161-176.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0014
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    As an important part of the lithic artifact manufacturing system, lithic raw materials exploitation reflects several attributes of prehistoric humans, including environmental cognition, resource exploitation, mobility patterns, and cultural exchanges. However, there were differences in these attributes between Africa and Western Eurasia: In the former, high-quality flint and obsidian are relatively abundant, whereas in East Asia the Paleolithic hunter-gatherers mainly exploited the locally ubiquitous vein quartz, quartzite, and ordinary chert to produce stone artifacts. This has resulted in a relatively small number of Paleolithic raw materials exploitation studies in East Asia. To better understand what is known about the lithic raw material exploitation strategies of the Paleolithic hunter-gatherers in China, here we review and summarize all previous related studies. We found that from the Lower Paleolithic to Upper Paleolithic periods, raw materials composition, source selection and exploitation methods changed substantially. During the Lower Paleolithic period, hunter-gatherers mainly exploited local vein quartz, quartzite and flint from riverbeds, bedrock outcrops and weathered outcrops near residential or camp sites. The quality of these raw materials was usually unexceptional, and the exploitation distances were generally within 10 km. During the Middle Paleolithic period, lithic raw material types increased in number and they varied between regions. Although the quality of these raw materials was also generally unexceptional, high-quality flint began to appear at some sites, albeit not in dominant proportions. Local procurement within 10 km still dominated during this period, while long-distance procurement occurred occasionally. The hunter-gatherers during this period clearly had an improved ability to recognize and utilize local raw materials, and they relied increasingly on high-quality raw materials. During the Upper Paleolithic period, the types of lithic raw materials increased greatly, and there was a marked decrease in the proportion of vein quartz and quartzite, and a significant increase in the proportion of high-quality raw materials, like flint, chalcedony, siliceous rock and volcanic tuff, and there was also the first appearance of obsidian. Long-distance procurement of high-quality raw materials in northern China became more common, but in southern China local procurement from riverbeds still dominated. The emergence of specialized raw material exploitation and lithic production workshop sites is another distinctive feature of this period. These temporal and spatial changes in Paleolithic raw material exploitation strategies in China were likely the result of multiple factors, including the mobility patterns of hunter-gatherers, advances in stone tool production technologies, and climate changes. In summary, the study of Paleolithic raw material exploitation strategy is critical for understanding human behavior, population interactions and migrations. Therefore, more intensive and systematic studies of Paleolithic raw materials exploitation in China are needed in the future.

    Research Articles
    A restudy of stone artifacts from the Fulin site in Hanyuan, Sichuan
    HUAN Faxiang, YANG Shixia, CHEN Wei, CHEN Weiju, ZHU Lidong, ZHANG Yuxiu
    2023, 42(02):  177-190.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0011
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    Microliths recovered from the Fulin site in western Sichuan Province have attracted much attention since their discovery in the last century, and is of particular value as an exception to the large cobble tool traditions of South China. This paper re-examines 1940 lithics from the 1972 excavation. Based on raw material selection, knapping techniques, striking platform types and quantities of both cores and flakes, we establish reduction strategies models. Hard hammer percussion is the main technique, with some bipolar percussion. The production of the bladelet-like pieces was highlighted in preliminary reports of the Fulin assemblage. In the current study, we confirm that the production of bladelet-like pieces is an important part of the industry; pieces mainly produced by controlled hard hammer with clear percussion marks different from real microblade reduction. In another words, the bladelet-like pieces are elongated small flakes but have features similar to microblades such as parallel edges and slender forms. Except for the bladelet-like products, small flakes account for a large proportion of this assemblage. There are simple unidirectional, bidirectional, multidirectional and Kombewa-type cores. In terms of tool retouching, the unretouched edge of the flake is more common. Small flakes and bladelet-like pieces provided efficient cutting edges. Scrapers, notches, bores and tanged tools are identified as retouched tools. The identification of tanged tools indicate the existence of composite tools. According to the stratigraphic reports of the 1970s, and recent excavation and dating results, the age of the site is 10.97±0.71 kaBP. Microliths are related to ecological and climatic adaptations, raw material conditions, and demographic expansion during the Late Pleistocene and Early Holocene. During the Pleistocene-Holocene transition, lithic assemblages of South China and their techniques were far more diverse than previously thought. This study suggests a deeper understanding of the diversity of lithic industries in southern China is warranted.

    Distribution of sexual stature dimorphism in modern Chinese populations and its influencing factors
    DU Baopu, YIN Yuzhe, TAN Yi, ZHANG Yuge, FAN Bo, YAO Zhizheng, GUO Hang
    2023, 42(02):  191-200.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0048
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    Sexual size dimorphism is the commonest form of sexual dimorphism, associated with growth patterns, mortality and food availability, which has become a hot topic of common concern in recent biological anthropology. In all living human populations, males usually show a larger body size than females. Over the last 40 years, many scholars have reported numerous anthropometric data sources on stature for modern Chinese, but little attention has been directed to the sexual dimorphism variability. In addition, what factors governing the inter-populations variation in SSD are still not clearly understood. The present study aimed to describe the variability in sexual stature dimorphism for modern human populations in China, and reassessed whether the geo-climatic factors and body size are associated with variation in sexual starure dimorphism. Data on sex-specific anthropometry (mean stature) was obtained from 152 modern Chinese populations, including 69 Han and 83 minority nationalities. The sexual dimorphism index was compared to assess difference in four groups (Southern Han, Northern Han, Southern Minority and Northern Minority). The latitude, climatic variables, body size and urban-rural environment were tested for their association with the sexual dimorphism. The results showed that males are about 7.16% (ranged 4.72%~9.26%) taller than females. The distribution of SDI are resemble between the Southern Han and Southern minority, the Northern Han and Northern minority, the Southern Han and Northern Han. Moreover the Southern minority displayed lower sexual dimorphism compared with the Northern minority. The latitude, annual temperature range and annual average wind speed are positively associated with sexual starure dimorphism, while the annual average temperature, annual average precipitation and annual average relative humidity are negatively associated with sexual starure dimorphism. In addition, this study found no significant allometric relationship between male and female stature agreed with the Rensch’s rule, may be related to the sexual selection perference favours other social compents rather than stature. It also reveals no significant difference in sexual stature dimorphism between urban and rural Han populations, inconsistent with female buffering hypothesis, reflecting poor diet and hard physical labor have less negative impact on the boys’ physical growth. Genetic component and natural environmental factors are the dominant determinant of the regionalization distribution in sexual stature dimorphism, while the social environmental factors do not exert a strong influence in the degree of sexual dimorphism. Although the samples are limited by individuals of different ages, it still helps us to insight the geographical distribution of sexual stature dimorphism in modern Chinese.

    Skeletal injury and osteoarthritis of the foot-binding females from the Xifengbu cemetery of Qing dynasty in Hongtong, Shanxi
    SUN Xiaofan, ZHANG Quanchao, MU Pingyuan, YANG Jiyun, CAO Jun
    2023, 42(02):  201-213.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0063
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    The Xifengbu cemetery, located in Xifengbu village of Hongtong County, Shanxi Province, is the first large-scale scientific archaeological excavation of this era in Shanxi Province. It provides precious archaeological materials for the study of burial customs and social development in the Ming and Qing dynasties, promoted the research on Ming and Qing archaeology to a certain extent. Foot-binding of female is the most noticeable cultural phenomenon among the burial populations in the cemetery. This paper started with the health status of females with and without foot-binding, and described the incidence of skeletal injury and osteoarthritis in a sample of 93 individuals unearthed from the Xifengbu cemetery of Qing Dynasty. The result shows that: 1) foot-binding females had a higher prevalence rate of foot osteoarthritis than females without foot-binding, which is closely related to the physiological structure changes of female feet caused by foot-binding custom; 2) The severity of elbow, and left wrist osteoarthritis in females with foot-binding was basically the same as that in females who were free of foot-binding, while the severity of right and bilateral wrist, and hand joint osteoarthritis was slightly higher than that in non-foot-binding females; 3) The prevalence of marginal osteophyte in all vertebral segments in foot-binding females was higher than that in females without foot-binding, and cervical vertebra and lumbar vertebra were the most seriously affected parts in all female residents; 4) There were no significant differences in the prevalence and severity of skeletal injury and osteoarthritis between the two groups, which may be related to the fact that both females with and without foot-binding were required to undertake physical labor against the background that the lower-class families pursued females’ economic value in the Chinese premodern male-dominant feudal society. The development and prosperity of sedentary production activities that did not rely on lower limb movements in the Ming and Qing Dynasties created more labor opportunities for females who suffered from this infamous custom. At the same time, foot-binding female in lower-class civilian families would also try their best to do some hard physical labor in the fields, which reduced the difference in the degree of skeletal injury and joint disease between them and normal females. The preliminary study on skeletal injury and osteoarthritis of female residfents in Xifengbu cemetery not only shed light on how this gender-biased custom might have compromised the health and quality of life for females in pre-modern societies, but also gave us a window into the miserable life of lower-class females in feudal families.

    Observation of the ossified thyroid cartilage in ancient Shandong residents
    ZHAO Yongsheng, SUN Tianlu, YANG ZhangQiaochu, WANG Zimeng, LIU Wentao, ZENG Wen
    2023, 42(02):  214-224.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0003
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    Thyroid cartilage, as the largest laryngeal cartilage, is occasionally found in ancient human bone materials from archaeological sites after ossification, and has a certain indicative role in judging the sex and age of ancient residents. This paper is a study of 18 individual cases of ossified thyroid cartilage discovered from the ancient human bones excavated from six archaeological sites in Shandong province combining with modern medicine and forensic medicine. The 18 individuals spanned four dynasties from the Shang Dynasty to the Qing Dynasty, and 1 case belongs to the Shang Dynasty, 10 cases to the Han Dynasty, 1 case to the Ming Dynasty, and 6 cases to the Qing Dynasty. Among the 18 individuals, 14 cases were males, 3 cases were females, and 1 case could not be identified for sex. Among the 17 cases with certain age, 15 cases were the age range of 35~50 years, 1 case was around 30 years old, and 1 case was older than 60 years old.

    The ossified thyroid cartilage in ancient human bone material is mostly found in the middle, lower edge, posterior edge, superior and inferior horn. These parts are early and highly ossified and are easier to preserve. Excluding acquired defects, individual ossification of the right and left lateral thyroid cartilage was preserved in a symmetrical pattern. There is a gender difference in the way and the size thyroid cartilage is ossified. In males, the anterior horn of the thyroid cartilage is preserved, most commonly at the lower end of the anterior horn, and the male protruding "laryngeal node" can be observed in the fully ossified anterior horn. In females, the anterior horn was generally absent, with incomplete ossification of the middle part of the bone plate, and the measurement of the inferior margin was significantly smaller than that in males.

    Eighteen individuals had only partially ossified thyroid cartilage, and none of them had completely ossified thyroid cartilage. Even the better preserved individual M195 of Xinzhi cemetery still has unossified areas at the posterior edge of the right plate. The ossification pattern of thyroid cartilage varies significantly among individuals. Although the ossification of thyroid cartilage correlates with age, it has a very low accuracy when used for identification. The results of age estimation using thyroid cartilage are older than that using bioarchaeology. It is not advisable to independently use the ossification of thyroid cartilage as a standard for age judgment. Still, it can be used as a reference basis to assist in age estimation. Among the 18 ancient residents, all individuals with a certain age were older than 30 years old.

    Antler fossil of Sinomegaceros ordosianus from Nanbaishan site of Late Pleistocene age in Yüxian, Hebei Province
    MEI Huijie, ZHANG Bei, LEI Huarui, TONG Haowen
    2023, 42(02):  225-237.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0001
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    Giant deer is among the most common animals of Mid-Late Pleistocene sites in northern China, and was one of the representative icons of the Pleistocene fauna in northern China, while the fossil materials are fairly poor and very few complete antlers were ever recovered, except those from Zhoukoudian site; on the other hand, the knowledge about the age-related changes of the antlers is absolutely insufficient. Therefore, the previous taxonomic work based only on the antler features is open to questions.

    In 2018, a quite complete antler of giant deer was recovered from the Nanbaishan site of Middle Paleolithic period in Yüxian County, Hebei Province. The antler is quite big; brow tine and the palmation of beam are thin and fan-like, without palm tines; the brow tine and the palmation of beam run along two nearly parallel planes, but are not exactly parallel; the shaft of the beam bends at the basal part, but the sigmoid form is not prominent. In general morphology, the new antler is very close to that of Sinomegaceros ordosianus. The new specimen represents the most complete antler of S. ordosianus ever recovered. The dimensions (L: length & W: width) of the palmate is 670×526.8 mm; the dimensions (L& W) of the brow tine is 510×480 mm, the length and circumference of the beam are 270 and 193 mm respectively, the circumference of the burr is 310 mm. The first phalanx is robust, its greatest length is 77.7 mm; proximal width is 29.2 mm, transverse and antero-posterior diameters are 24.0 and 26.0 mm respectively.

    In China, quite a number of megalocerine taxa had been named at the species and subspecies levels, namely Sinomegaceros pachyosteus, S. ordosianus, S. flabellatus, S. konwanlinensis, S. youngi, S. luochuanensis, S. sangganhoensis, S. o. mentougouensis and S. baotouensis, among which S. ordosianus is the most widely distributed species and has the richest fossil records. On the contrary, S. baotouensis is the least known species which only represented by one shed antler and one metatarsal bone. With only a few exceptions, e.g. Tangshan near Nanjing, Zhoushan island in Zhejiang and Hualong Cave in Anhui, all the other megalocerine fossil sites in China occur north of the Yangtze River, and most of them are located in northern China. The fossils of S. ordosianus were frequently appeared in the prehistoric site, which indicates that the giant deer was very probably among the food sources of early humans. The OSL age of the Nanbaishan site is around 110 kaBP, which falls into the range of the Middle Paleolithic period.

    Utilization of the Chinese water deer of early Holocene by human from the Xiaogao site, Shandong Province
    GAO Yao, WANG Hua, LANG Jianfeng
    2023, 42(02):  238-247.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0060
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    The Xiaogao site is an early Holocene site discovered in Shandong Province in recent years. In 2017, the Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology of Shandong Province and the Department of Archaeology of Shandong University conducted a rescue archaeological excavation and discovered a large number of cultural remains and animal bones, and Chinese water deer (Hydropotes inermis) is the most frequently found species among them. The Chinese water deer, as one of the main animal resources used by prehistoric humans in China, occupied an important position in the prehistoric subsistence activities, that can be confirmed by large amounts of bones, teeth and bone tools found in archaeological sites. Therefore, Chinese water deer from the Xiaogao site provide important materials for us to fully explore the hunting and utilization strategy of Chinese water deer, and further understand patterns of human subsistence strategies and complex relationship between humans and animals in the early Holocene. Based on five aspects of Chinses water deer bones, including age structure, sex ratio, seasonality, skeletal distribution pattern and bone fracture degree, this paper analyses the utilization pattern of Chinese water deer in the Xiaogao site. The age structure of Chinese water deer indicate that human hunting targets were mainly young and middle-aged individuals of 7-24 months, and a higher proportion of immature individuals were hunted in the late phase of site, indicating that most Chinese water deer became human hunting targets after approaching or reaching the maximum weight, and human hunting activities had a certain impact on population structure. Seasonality studies show that human hunting for Chinese water deer occurs mostly in winter and spring when food resources are scarce. The sex ratio study show that there was little difference in bone size between males and females, and it was difficult to analyze sex ratio with bone measurement data. Skeletal distribution pattern and bone fragmentation studies show that there may be full exploitation and utilization of meat and bone marrow. Combining with the biological characteristics of Chinese water deer, we propose that the utilization mode of Chinese water deer conforms to the features of broad-spectrum and intensive utilization of animal resources in the early Holocene. It also reflects the close interaction between human and animals. With this interaction, human not only have access to a variety of animal resources, such as meat, bone marrow and tools materials, but also have an opportunity to learn about animal characteristics and accumulate experience from animal management.

    Excavation / Investigation Reports
    Excavation report of the Yanling paleolithic site in the Luonan Basin, Shaanxi Province
    LI Jiameng, WANG Shejiang, SUN Xuefeng, LU Huayu, ZHANG Xiaobing, ZHANG Hongyan, ZHANG Gaike, XIA Wenting, BIE Jingjing
    2023, 42(02):  248-259.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0005
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    The Yanling site is located on the second terrace of the South Luohe River in the Luonan Basin, Qinling mountains, central China, where is the confluence between the South Luohe river and its branch of the Xianhe river, the landform is a loess tableland with a loess-paleosol deposit sequence of 26 meters. A systematic archaeological excavation was carried out from October to November in 2012 in order to cooperate with the construction of Siyuan Experimental School. The excavation exposed a total area of 251 m2, identifying five depositional layers, with 856 stone artifacts yielded. The lithic assemblage consists of manuports, cores, flakes, chunks, chips, and retouched tools. The retouched tools include scrapers, points, awls, notches, cleaver and pick. The stone artifacts did not move in long distance, and the site is a primary deposit site and only slightly disturbed by rains or other low-energy hydrodynamic element in the formation process. The thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) dating and the Post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence 290 (pIRIR290) dating results of the deposits suggest that the Paleolithic sequence in the Yanling site could be divided into two development stages, that is the late Middle Pleistocene and early Late Pleistocene, and the site occupied mainly by the hominin could be dated back to 120-70 kaBP. The lithic assemblages from layer 2~5 demonstrated similarities in the aspects of raw material, size, core debitage reduction and tool retouch technology. Firstly, the lithic artifacts are produced by local cobbles/pebbles, which were collected from riverbank alluvial deposits close to this site. Quartz and quartzite were the most frequently used raw materials for knapping and retouching tools, although quartzite sandstone, fine sandstone, igneous rock and siliceous limestone were occasionally used. Secondly, most of the stone artifacts are small (<50 mm) in size, followed by medium (50~100 mm) in size, but finely retouched tools such as cleaver and pick, are large(>100 mm) in size. Thirdly, the proportion of chunks and chips produced by processing stone artifacts is high, followed by manuport and cores, and the number of retouched tools is at a minimum. Fourthly, the tools are mainly retouched flake tools. Pebbles and chunks are also occasionally used as blanks. Most of the tools are small (<50 mm) or medium (50~100 mm) in size. Quartz is used as raw material for retouched tools smaller than 50 mm, and quartzite is used for retouched tools larger than 100 mm. Fifthly, The principal flake knapping method is direct hammer hard percussion. Nevertheless, apart from direct percussion, the bipolar technique was occasionally used.

    A preliminary report on the excavation of Nanshangen Paleolithic Locality in the Nihewan Basin
    FAN Wentian, YANG Xiaodong
    2023, 42(02):  260-271.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0015
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    The scientific research in the Nihewan Basin has experienced a long history of nearly 100 years, involving a variety of fields such as geology, paleontology, paleoanthropology, chronology, etc. With abundant scientific research achievements, the Nihewan Basin draws the attention of the world. Located in the southwest of Cenjiawan village, Yangyuan County, Hebei Province, the Nanshangen Paleolithic locality is the early Paleolithic site. The archaeological culture layer is buried in the lake facies layer of Nihewan, with the geological age being early Pleistocene.

    From May to July of 2017, the archaeological team of Hebei Normal University carried out excavations at this site, within an area of about 22 m2. A cultural layer was discovered as the excavation of the Nanshangen locality proceeded. A total of 519 pieces of numbered relics were unearthed, most of which were stone artifacts whose main types were stone cores, flakes, tools,fragments, etc. The minority of 17 fossils were broken. The direct percussion was the dominate debitage technique. The raw materials of stone artifacts were breccia, flint, siliceous limestone, quartz sandstone and so on, among which brown-red breccia accounted for the vast majority. The bedrock exposed in the south and east of Nanshangen Paleolithic Locality was visible, so the raw materials of stone artifacts could be drawn near. Overall, stone artifacts were small, belonging to the small stone tradition of North China.

    According to the analysis of the preservation and distribution of stone artifacts, there was little displacement of the relic position in the plane and vertical direction caused by the fault and stratum tilt as well as the impact of water transportation. The stone products were less disturbed by later factors. A total of 25 splicing groups were found at the site, including 57 pieces of spliceable stone products. The fossils buried in situ were broken and poorly preserved, which might be caused by weathering after exposure in the wilderness for a period of time. It can be inferred that the Nanshangen site is a temporary activity place for humans to make stone tools.

    The Nanshangen Paleolithic Locality lied in the northwest wall of the Brown fault. The strata were declining and adjacent to the sites of Cenjiawan, Shigou, and Donggutuo. The Nanshangen and Cenjiawan’s cultural layers are in the same natural accumulation layer, but the cultural layer of this site is slightly higher than that of Cenjiawan site. Therefore the age is slightly close to and later than that of Cenjiawan site(1.1Ma). It is of great significance to study the survival strategies of early Paleolithic humans in the Datianwa area of the Nihewan Basin.

    Overweight and obesity in Tibetan Burmese adults in China
    ZHANG Xinghua, ZHENG Lianbin, XU Fei, BAO Jinping, YU Keli
    2023, 42(02):  272-276.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0047
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    Using anthropometric methods, the research team surveyed physical parameters of adults in 17 minorities of the Tibetan Burmese speaking groups at Guizhou, Yunnan, Sichuan, Tibet, Hubei and Hunan from 2015 to 2019. Measurement parameters include mass, height and skinfold. Calculation parameters include body mass index, body density and percent body fat. The body mass index of Tibetan Burmese speaking groups are positively correlated with per capita GDP.The obesity and overweight rate of the Tibetan Burmese speaking groups is affected by socio-economic factors and historical and cultural factors. The obesity and overweight rates of the adults of Tibetan Burmese speaking groups are high, and it is urgent to take active measures to deal with and prevent them.

    Chronology and lithic technological progresses of those Paleolithic sites in Danjiangkou Reservoir Region
    LI Wencheng, SONG Guoding
    2023, 42(02):  277-287.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0004
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    Situated at the southern piedmont of Qinling Mountains, the Danjiangkou Reservoir Region (DRR) is served as the critical area for human migration and cultural interaction between Southern and Northern China. Many Paleolithic sites have been discovered during the South-to-North Water Diversion Project conducted by the Chinese government, and some of them have been systematically excavated, which demonstrates the DRR is an essential zone for the adaption and evolution of hominins during the Pleistocene. However, given the limitation of chronological data, the cultural and technological development trajectory in the DRR is still unclear.

    This paper has scrutinized all the excavated sites published so far, with a special focus on their geomorphological location, lithic artifacts and dates. The DRR with a total of 38 sites can be divided into two sub-areas when considering their locations, including the upstream of the Hanshui River region (n=25) and the downstream of the Danjiang River region (n=13).

    In this paper, we reevaluate the chronology of excavated sites in DRR and further proposes the following opinions:

    1) Regional cultural development can be divided into three stages: a) Phase 1 is dated from MIS 27-MIS 8, represented by the simple core-and-flake industry, including sites located on the fourth terrace of the Hanshui River, the lower layers of sites on the third terrace of the Hanshui and Danjiang river, as well as Bailongdong and Longgudong caves. b) Phase 2 with a chronology ranging from MIS 7-MIS 3c is characterized by the emergence of Large Cutting Tool (LCT) assemblages. This stage consists of the open-air sites buried in the upper layers on the third terrace of the DRR, all the sites on the second terrace of Hanshui River, and one cave site, the Huanglong Cave. c) Phase 3 is estimated to be dated from MIS 3b to the end of Pleistocene which includes the upper cultural layer of Shuiniuwa and Longkou site on the third terrace of the Hanshui Branch. Small-sized flake tools dominate the lithic assemblage during this stage, and no LCT factors are found.

    2) Although well-organized technological stages can be observed in the DRR, the core-and-flake assemblages still dominate at all sites throughout the Pleistocene, even when LCT factors appeared, which indicates a technological and cultural continuity in this area.

    3) Considering the two sub-areas in the DRR, the lithic technology in downstream of the Danjiang River is slightly different from that in the Hanshui Branch. The former is characterized by more flake tool components and fewer LCT factors during 250-50 kaBP, indicating technological influence from northern China and the Qinling Mountains (or Southern China) and further implying the potential cultural transmission with both regions.

    4) We further propose that the LCT complex in Hanshui branch of the DRR during 100-50 ka BP is coinstantaneous with the presence of Homo sapiens in this area, which is represented by fossils discovered at Huanglongdong Cave. Their coexistence suggests that the LCT complex is likely part of the tool kit made by Homo sapiens.

    Discovery and research of the engraved remains in the early and middle Paleolithic periods
    LI Sanling
    2023, 42(02):  288-303.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0046
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    Engravings are important archaeological materials that prehistoric humans deliberately scribed, and play an important role in revealing and exploring the development and evolution of cognitive and thinking expression abilities of ancient humans. At present, the discovery and research of engravings are mainly concentrated in Europe, southern Africa and west Asia, but there are few engravings found in China. This article emphatically introduces the current findings and researches on engravings at home and abroad. On this basis, we summarize the identification and analysis methods of engravings and try to explore the differences of engravings in different time and space. The interference factors for the identification of engravings mainly include two aspects: One is the unconscious or functional modification by prehistoric humans; The other one is the taphonomic influence. Macroscopically, the scratches produced by these interference factors are usually scattered and irregular, and different from the purposeful, conscious and designable engravings. Microscopically, the researchers usually use microscope and build 3D digital models, so that they can more carefully observe the characteristics of the engravings and get more quantitative statistics, which can be used for comparative analysis to identify authenticity more scientifically and rigorously. In the early Paleolithic, there are few engravings, and the carved patterns are simple, but they have obvious artificial design intention. In the middle Paleolithic, the engravings not only increased in distribution area and the number of specimens, but also became more diverse in carrier types and graphical representations. More than 20 middle Paleolithic sites with engravings were found in Europe. The types of carrier include bone, nummulite, chert and bedrock. Engraving patterns are mainly parallel or sub-parallel lines, stacked chevrons with more complex graphic design and technological process also appear. In addition, there are also cross intersection, zigzag and cross-hatched design. Compared to Europe, the sites with engravings in Africa are less, but the specimens in individual site are more. The non-utilitarian ochre and ostrich eggshells become the main carriers, which is obviously different from the situation in Europe. The carved patterns found in Africa are generally more standardized, more designable, and more complex in graphical representation, mainly reflect in fan shaped motif, hatched band motif, curved lines that cross a central line and diamond shaped pattern found in Klipdrift Shelter, Dieploof Rock Shelter and Blombos Cave. And part of these patterns are often found in different layers of the site, there is inheritance and continuation. The engravings of the Middle Paleolithic in Asia are mainly found in Western Asia and Lingjing site in China. Among them, the engravings at Quneitra site in Israel with some disconnected parts forming a unified whole are the most distinctive. The characteristics of the engravings at Mar-Tarik, Qafzeh Cave and Lingjing site are similar to those in Europe, with parallel or sub-parallel lines being the main pattern and with bones being the main carrier. It is worth noting that ochre pigments are found on the engravings of Lingjing site, further increases the symbolic significance of these specimens.

    Review of Books and Periodicals
    The Bioarchaeology of Metabolic Bone Disease
    DAI Qi, ZHANG Quanchao
    2023, 42(02):  303-304. 
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