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    15 October 2021, Volume 40 Issue 05
    Research Articles
    The incisive canal position of the Chinese Pleistocene humans and its evolutionary implications
    LIU Wu, HUI Jiaming, HE Jianing, WU Xiujie
    2021, 40(05):  739-750.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0015
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    When studying the fossils of Homo erectus from Zhoukoudian, Weidenreich pointed out that the incisive foramen is more posteriorly positioned compared with that of modern humans in which the foramen is situated anteriorly more close to alveolar border. Since then, incisive foramen have been used in paleoanthroology studies as an indicator with evolutionary value. However, till now, only one Chinese human fossil from Zhoukoudian was studied for the position of incisive foramen while no study of incisive foramen positions in modern Chinese has been conducted. In this study, the positions of incisive foramen of Chinese human fossils and specimens of modern Chinese population were observed and measured. Based on these, in conjunction with previous studies of incisive foramen of human fossils around the world, the expression pattern and evolutionary implications of the incisive foramen positions for Chinese human fossils were explored. Our study indicates that from Early Pleistocene to Late Pleistocene, the positions of incisive foramens in Chinese human fossils follow the trend to the anterior positions. The positions of incisive foramens in Early and Middle Pleistocene Homo erectus (Yunxian and Zhoukoudian) are more posteriorly positioned; In late Middle Pleistocene, the positions of incisive foramens in some specimens (Dali, Changyang, Hualongdong) are moved forwardly resembling those of modern humans, while other specimens (Jinniushan, Chaoxian) exhibit posteriorly positioned incisive foramens, which are within the variation ranges of Homo erectus; In all the specimens of Late Pleistocene humans, the positions of incisive foramens situate anteriorly within the variation ranges of modern humans. The investigation of the incisive foramen in modern Chinese population show that although the positions in modern humans are anterior, the size and shape of the incisive foramens in modern humans exhibit pronounced variabilities. This expression pattern of the incisive foramens in modern humans will affect the evaluations to the position and evolutionary implications of the incisive foramens. In additions, nearly all the incisive foramens in modern human specimens are open in their anterior borders and the incisive canals take inclined trends towards superoposterior directions from the entrance. This discovery is different from the vertical direction of the incisive canals in modern humans proposed by Weidenreich. In considering the investigated data of the incisive foramens in Chinese human fossils, modern Chinese specimens and incisive foramen positions of other human fossils around the world, the authors believe that the positions of incisive foramens exhibit relatively fixed pattern in the human evolution and posteriorly positioned incisive foramens should be treated as a primitive traits.

    Bone artifacts of the Honghe site in Qiqihar, Heilongjiang
    LIANG Qiyao, ZHANG Wei, CHEN Quanjia, TIAN He
    2021, 40(05):  751-763.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0025
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    The study on bone tools, as an important topic of zooarchaeological research, has gradually become basis for the study of prehistoric Nenjiang River Basin subsistence model since Liang Siyong discovered the bone tools of the Ang’angxi site in the 1930s. In the archaeological excavations of the Honghe site in 2013, 2014, 2015 and 2017, a significant number of artifacts dating back to the Neolithic Age and Bronze Age were recovered. A total of 343 well-preserved bone tools (including tools made of bone and antler) were collected. According to the analysis of these artifacts, the manufacturing process and retouching technology of them in two different periods were discovered, which may shed new light on economic model of prehistory residents, regional characteristics and other related issues.

    Stable isotope analysis reveals an agricultural economy in Southeast Inner Mongolia during the Warring States period
    LIU Xiaodi, WEI Dong, WANG Tingting, ZHANG Xinyu, HU Yaowu
    2021, 40(05):  764-775.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0074
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    Southeastern Inner Mongolia is the central area for the origins of millet agriculture in the Liaoxi region of north China, and is a strategic region for competition between agricultural and nomadic groups. In the early-middle Warring States period, this area was mainly a settlement for northern ethnic groups with diverse ethnic cultures and complex economic activities. In the late Warring States period, expansion of the Central Plain dynasties and their progressive cultivation skills led to a uniformity of culture and population in the area. Few studies have focused on the status of this agricultural economy and its profound impacts on the integration of the population and culture in southeastern Inner Mongolia throughout these times. Here, we analyzed 67 bones and teeth from the Shuiquan and Dashanqian tombs in Chifeng for stable isotope ratios of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N). The results showed that the ancestors predominantly consumed C4 foods including foxtail millet and broomcorn millet, or animals that depended on these products, which reveals a dietary pattern based on millet cultivation and animal husbandry. Fishing was also an important supplement based on certain isotopic data. The present paper further reviews several other stable isotope studies in this area, indicating that the consumption of millet not only played a predominant role, but also provided the material basis for fusion of different populations and cultures during the Warring States period.

    A study of maxillary sinusitis infections of the Han dynasty people from the Heishuiguo site
    XIONG Jianxue, CHEN Guoke, YIN Xing, MENG Hailiang, YANG Yishi, TAO Yichen, TAN Jingze, LI Hui, WEN Shaoqing
    2021, 40(05):  776-786.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0031
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    Maxillary sinus is the largest bone cavity around the nasal cavity. Because of its special location and structure, maxillary sinus is more likely to be infected and induce inflammatory response than frontal sinus, ethmoid sinus and sphenoid sinus. Therefore, maxillary sinusitis is one of the most common inflammatory diseases in modern humans. We found that, in Heishuiguo population, 40.5% of the examined maxillae show the morphologic change, mainly being spicules type. Maxillary sinusitis seems to affect more women than men in Heishuiguo population, but there are no statistically significant differences between male and female samples. The prevalence of the left side is slightly higher than that of the right side in male samples, conversely for female samples. Moreover we found that between the juveniles to middle age maxillary sinusitis increases with age, but there is no significant difference via the binary logistic regression test. Among the maxillary sinusitis individuals, 66.7% of them have periodontal disease, and over half have caries. In Heishuiguo population maxillary sinusitis seems to interlock with dental disease. The high rate of maxillary sinusitis found in Heishuiguo site may be caused by many factors, such as cold and dry climate, air pollution, tooth diseases and pathogenic microorganisms.

    Morphological analysis of bones on the foot-binding female deformity of Taohuayuan Cemetery of Ming and Qing Dynasties in Ji county, Tianjin
    QIU Linhuan, LI Fajun
    2021, 40(05):  787-800.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0034
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    The authors studied the foot bone deformation in Taohuayuan Cemetery (14-19 century) of Jixian County in Tianjin. 101female individuals were observed and analyzed. The results show that the homonymous bones of individuals have different shapes and degrees of deformation. It shows that the deformation symmetry in both sides. Tarsals are mainly manifested in the reduction of overall size, and some of them will produce deformation. The shape of metatarsal and proximal phalangeal bone will change dramatically due to the influence of foot binding force, which is mainly manifested as the thin and curved metatarsal and proximal phalangeal bone, the change of articular surface, and the deformation of proximal and distal metatarsal body, upper and lower diameter and transverse diameter of metatarsal body and phalangeal body.In general, metatarsals and phalanges are more deformed than tarsals. The authors summarized the standard of judging whether an individual has foot bound or not, especially point out that it is necessary to observe the morphological changes of talus and calcaneus at the same time. In view of other diseases (such as hyperarched foot, leprosy and rheumatoid arthritis) can also lead to the deformity of foot bone, it is necessary to analyze the cause of formation when diagnose. Foot binding is caused by culture, and this kind of foot bone deformation is different from which caused by pathology. Functional stress analysis can effectively explain the cause and process of foot bone deformation.

    A study of physical characteristics of the Sherpas
    YU Keli, XIANG Xiaoxue, LI Yonglan, ZHANG Hongming, DU Huimin
    2021, 40(05):  801-810.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0049
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    In 2016, we measured the head and face and body indicators in 182 Sherpas (98 males; 84 females) in Tibet. Excel 2010 and SPSS 21.0 were used to analysis the data. Results show that the average of the head and face indicators in Sherpas adults belongs to brachycephaly, hypsicephalic type, tapeinocephalic type, and mesorrhiny. The average of the physical indicators in Sherpas adults belongs to middle trunk, medium shoulder breadth, narrow distance between iliac crests and the sub-medium height, and the male is the submakroskelic type, the female is the mesatiskelic type. Compared with other ethnic groups, the physical characteristics of the Sherpas are closest to those of the Monba, followed by the Lhoba, and belong to the Zang-Yi corridor category. At present, the research on physical characteristics of the Sherpas in China is still in its infancy. This study has enriched the database of national physique data and provided some data support for studying the ethnic origin of the Sherpas.

    A study of physical characteristics of the Mon-Khmer unidentified ethnic groups
    SUN Zeyang, ZHENG Lianbin, YU Keli, ZHANG Xinghua
    2021, 40(05):  811-823.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0022
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    In order to explore the characteristics of Mon-Khmer unidentified ethic groups, 412 individuals (220 males and 192 females) of which from Yunan province were selected as subjects for this study. By employing the anthropomorphic method, a total number of 58 features of head, facial and body parts as well as 20 specific physical indexes were measured and analyzed. Eight indicators were selected to be compared with those from 30 reported populations, including the head length, head breadth, face breadth, morphological facial height, stature, sitting height, shoulder breadth, and cresta iliaca breadth. The results from this research are shown as follows. First, most of the physical indexes of men were higher than those of women, except for the girth of thigh and 6 types of skinfold thickness. Meanwhile, the stature of both men and women subjects were considered as the short-type. Second, the percentage of upper eyelid eyefold of the tested males was 88.2% and that index of the females was 94.3%, with the frequency of the Mongoloid fold as 41.8% (male) and 36.5% (female). Nasal root height in this tested group was defined as medium for males and low for females. Ear lobe types of males were mostly round and those of females were basically with a triangular shape. Third, based on the index analysis, males and females were classified as the brachycephaly, hypsicephalic and tapeinocephalic type for head, leptorrhiny for nose, mesatiskelic type for leg, and with medium chest circumference as well as broad shoulder breadth. Besides, Cluster and principal component analysis indicated that the Mon-Khmer unidentified ethic groups were relatively close to those of Blang, Jino, Buyei and Dong ethic groups. Genetic factors, environmental conditions and eating habits are the reasons for the similar physical characteristics of these ethnic groups.

    Somatotype characteristics of the She people in Fujian
    HU Rong
    2021, 40(05):  824-833.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0027
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    According to historical records, She people had lived at the junction of Guangdong, Fujian and Jiangxi before Tang Dynasty. Today She people are mainly distributed in seven provinces, including Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Anhui, Hunan and Guizhou. However, there has been a great controversy about the origin and migration of She people. In this study, we randomly selected 504 She nationality adults (285 males and 219 females) aged above18 years old from Fu’an city and Fuding city of Fujian Province, with measuring 10 Physical parameters including stature, weight, biepicondylar breadth of the humerus, biepicondylar breadth of the femur, circumference of tensed arm, circumference of claf, thickness of triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, supraspinale skinfold and middle calf skinfold. The Heath-Carter somatotype method was used to analyze the somatotype of She people in eastern Fujian. The average somatotype of She males (5.02-3.76-1.76) was endodermic, while the average somatotype of females (6.91-3.50-1.23) was endodermic. Compared with other southern ethnic minorities in China, the results show that somatotype of She people is closer to Han groups, especially the Han people from southern and eastern Fujian, and Han people from Guangxi, but more different from southern ethnic minority, which suggested that formation process of She nationality is closely related to Han nationality. This study provides the biological clue for origin of She, and also provides the necessary data and materials for the anthropological research in China.

    A study of Weizang and Kham Tibetans’ somatotype by Heath-Carter method
    BAO Jinping, YU Keli, LI Yonglan, LI Chong, ZHANG Xinghua, ZHENG Lianbin
    2021, 40(05):  834-846.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0038
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    The somatotypes of 400 Kham Tibetan adults in Diqing of Yunnan Province and 507 Weizang Tibetan adults in Linzhi of Tibet were studied by the Heath-Carter method. Both Weizang Tibetan males(5.0-6.2-1.1) and Kham Tibetan males(4.4-5.1-1.6) are endomorphic mesomorph. Both Weizang Tibetan females (5.7-6.1-0.8) and Kham Tibetan females(5.6-5.7-1.1) are endomorph mesomorph. In general, the Tibetans of Weizang and Kham have the same somatotype, and there are also differences. The Weizang and Kham Tibetans have low linearity, strong bones and muscles, and higher body fat. The Weizang Tibetans have more fat, stronger muscles and bones, and fuller body than Kham Tibetans. From the perspective of the Tibetan origin and the living environment, this article explores the similarities and differences of somatotypes between the Weizang and Kham Tibetans, and the reasons for the differences of somatotypes between ethnic groups living at high altitudes. The research results suggest that the Tibetans have the somatotype characteristics of Chinese northern ethnic groups. The somatotype characteristics of fleshy body fat, strong skeletal muscles and stout bodies of Tibetans are also adapted to the plateau environment.

    Differences of maximum growth age in height, mass among Han, Mongolian and Japanese students
    Deli Geer, Wuyun Gerile
    2021, 40(05):  847-856.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0033
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    To analysis the development status of height and mass with Han, Mongolian students in Inner Mongolia and Japanese students aged 7-18 in 2014, and explore national difference of the maximum growth age in height and mass. The data of Han and Mongolian students were from “2014 survey on the physical fitness and health of students in Inner Mongolia autonomous region”; Data of Japanese students were obtained from “statistical information of the Heisei 26 annual sports survey” of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology-Japan. The national differences of the development status of height and mass, maximum growth age in height and mass(MIA-H, MIA-W) among Han, Mongolian and Japanese students were compared. The Results showed that height of both Han male and female were taller than Mongolian and Japanese at aged 7-18, 1.98 cm and 1.54 cm higher than Mongolian, and 2.59 cm and 2.91 cm higher than Japanese on average respectively(P<0.05). The height of Mongolian male and female were 0.61 cm and 1.37 cm taller than Japanese (P<0.05).The mass of Han male was 1.97 kg Heavier than that of Mongolian and 4.01 kg Heavier than that of Japanese on average(P<0.05). The mass of Han female was similar to Mongolian, and 2.59 kg and 2.67 kg heavier than Japanese on average respectively(P<0.05). Han boys has the earliest maximum growth age in height(HIA-H) at 10.66 years, which is followed by Japanese in 11.56 years and Mongolian in 12.39 years. The HIA-H of Japanese female was 9.73 years; Han and Mongolian female were 10.41 years and 10.10 years respectively. The maximum growth age of mass(MIA-W) among Han Mongolian and Japanese male were 12.52 years,12.62 years and 11.45 years; MIA-W in female was 10.59 years, 10.34 years and 10.14 years respectively. In 2014, the development levels of height and mass of Han and Mongolian students aged 7-18 in Inner Mongolia were higher than Japanese students of the same age. HIA-H of Han male was 1.73 years earlier than Mongolian and 0.9 years earlier than Japanese respectively, and HIA-W of Han and Mongolian male were 1.17 years and 1.07 years later than Japanese. HIA-H of Japanese female was 0.68 and 0.37 years earlier than Han and Mongolian.

    Analysis of skinfold thickness and body composition of the Tujia adults in Hunan
    HUANG Dayuan, ZHANG Huijuan, TIAN Miao, QIN Dabao, LIANG Chengqing
    2021, 40(05):  857-866.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0040
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    The values of stature, body mass, triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, anterior superior iliac skinfold and medial calf skinfold of 976 Tujia adults (528 males and 448 females) were measured in Hunan by anthropometry method, and the values of the body dense, body fat rate, fat mass, lean body mass, fat mass index and lean mass index were calculated by formula. The results were as follows: 1) With the increase of age, the thickness of medial calf skinfold decreased gradually, the values of triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, anterior superior iliac skinfold, body fat rate, fat mass, lean body mass, body mass index, fat mass index and lean mass index increased and then decreased, while the value of body density decreased and then increased; 2) The values of body density, lean body mass and lean mass index of females were significantly lower than those of male in the same age group, while the values of four skinfold thicknesses, body fat rate, fat mass and fat mass index were significantly greater than those of male; 3) Compared with 24 ethnic groups such as Blang, the distribution of skinfold thickness of Tujia adults in Hunan is in the medium level, and Tujia is closely related to Monba, Lhoba, Deng and Yi ethnic groups.

    An analysis of the starch grains from the Zhangwangzhuang site of early Yangshao culture
    YI Wenwen, WEI Xingtao, YANG Yuzhang, YAO Ling, LAN Wanli, ZHANG Xiaohu, ZHANG Juzhong
    2021, 40(05):  867-878.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0032
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    The western Huanghuai Plain is a transitional zone of archeological cultures and agricultural models between the south and north China during the Neolithic period. In recent years, great progress has been made on archaeobotany in this area. However, the situation about human plant food resources and agricultural development during the early Yangshao culture in this area are still not well understood. The Zhangwangzhuang(ZWZ) site, located at the Wuyang County, Henan Province is a Neolithic archaeological site which date belongs to the early Yangshao culture. In this paper, 54 pottery sherds and 13 stone tools from the ZWZ site are studied by using starch grain analysis. The experimental results indicate that two kinds of dryland crops originated from the north China, foxtail millet (Setariaitalica) and broomcorn millet (Panicum miliaceum), have spread to the low-latitude areas of western Huanghuai Plain no later than 6000 years ago, and then, together with the locally grown rice (Oryza sative), the mixed farming of rice and millets formed in the whole western Huanghuai area. Notably, in addition to the three above crops, ancient people of the ZWZ site also utilized many kinds of wild plant food such as Triticeae, Coix, Nelumbo nuciferaand Trichosantheskirilowii. To understand the importance of different kinds of plant food in human diet, the ubiquity analysis is conducted in this paper and the result show that wild plant foods still dominated in ZWZ people’s life although the early agriculture has been greatly developed during the early Yangshao culture in the western Huanghuai Plain. This paper provides the scientific evidence for understanding the utilization of plant food resources and the development of agriculture during the early Yangshao period in the western Huanghuai Plain for the first time, which is also of great value to understand the specific Spatio-temporal process of prehistoric crop spreading and agricultural structure evolution in the western part of the Huanghuai area.

    A study of pollen and fungal spores extracted from the feces of domestic herbivores in China and their implications for human behavior
    ZHANG Yaping, ZHAO Keliang, ZHOU Xinying, YANG Qingjiang, JIA Weiming, LI Xiaoqiang
    2021, 40(05):  879-887.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0026
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    It has been demonstrated that plant microfossils in the coprolites unearthed from archaeological sites are important materials for reconstructing past ecologies and environments as well as human activities. However, the palynological assemblages of animals’ coprolites that reflects human behavior of feeding and grazing are still poorly understood. Here we present the results of a study of the major pollen and fungal spore types found in the feces of six common domestic herbivores in China: goat (Capra aegagrus), sheep (Ovis aries), cattle (Bos taurus), camel (Camelus sp.), yak (Bos grunniens), and horse (Equus caballus). A study of surface soil samples in proximity to a sheepfold was also conducted to evaluate the influence of factors affecting the transmission of coprophilous fungal spores. The pollen characteristics of the feces include overall low taxonomic abundance and a high proportion of just a few pollen types, such as those of the Poaceae and Chenopodiaceae, which are affected by human activities. The main fungal spore types detected in domestic herbivore feces include the genera Sporormiella, Sodaria, Pleospora, Coniochaeta, Thecaphora and Dictyosporium. The distribution of fungal spores is apparently affected by the range of the animals, making it possible to use coprophilous spores (e.g., Sporormiella) to reconstruct the pastoral and animal breeding activities of ancient humans.

    Comparison of stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen in fingernails of the residents in Hotan, Hami and Altai, Xinjiang
    HE Xinlong, MEI Hongcheng, WAMG Jifen, ZHU Jun, GUO Pengran, HU Can, HE Ya, GONG Xiaoxiao, HU Zhanlun
    2021, 40(05):  888-894.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0079
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    Nail is a kind of connective tissue with a thyroid structure on the back of fingertip. In the field of forensic science, nail, as a new biological information carrier, has a high application value. The hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in water would be continuously fixed by nail keratin and kept in the nail statically after the person ingested water, thus the temporal and spatial information of the person’s life were recorded, which is of great significance for the screening of individual identity. In this paper, the hydrogen and oxygen stable isotope in fingernails of residents in Khotan, Hami and Altay were analyzed by Elemental Analyses-Stable Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry, and the model was constructed by discriminant analysis to carry out the pattern recognition. The results showed that the ratios of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in the fingernails of residents in three different cities were different. There was a significant difference between the δ2H value in Khotan residents and that in Hami and Altay. Hami and Altay had more overlapping of δ 2H value, but the difference was relatively small. The distribution of δ 18O value about three cities was overlapped without any significant difference. In the discriminant model, the difference between Khotan and Hami, Altay was very obvious, while difference between Hami and Altay was partly coincidence. Compared with DF2 discriminant function, each sample was obviously distinct from each other under DF1 discriminant function. The overall classification accuracy of 85 samples was 95.29 %, and the 9 verified samples were classified exactly, which was ideal. In conclusion, the combination of EA-IRMS and discriminant analysis can provide an accurate and effective method for the analysis of hydrogen and oxygen stable isotopes in fingernails of different urban residents, which has certain reference significance.

    Excavation/Investigation Reports
    Lithic artifacts from the Ruoregou and Maiduodebu localities in Ngari District, Tibet
    WANG Xiaoyu, ZHANG Jianlin, XI Lin, ZHU Zhiyong
    2021, 40(05):  895-903.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0018
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    In 2004, some stone age localities were found when a fieldwork was done by shaanxi provincial institute of archaeology in Ngari district western Tibet area. This research will focus on two of these localities: Ruoregou and Maiduodebu. It will investigate, classify and describe the lithic artifacts discovered in these two sites. This stone artifacts includes microblade cores, microblades, delicately retouched scrapers, and points. The discovery of these microlithic materials is of great significance for deeply understanding and studying the microlithic industry in Tibet.

    A preliminary report on the survery and trial excavation of Xinxing Locality 1 in Wangqing, Jilin Province
    XU Ting, FANG Qi, , SHI Yuxin, YANG Guorong, YAN Jiahai
    2021, 40(05):  904-916.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0020
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    The Xinxing Locality 1 is located in the second terrace on the North Bank of Qianhe River, a tributary of Gaya River in Wangqing county, Jilin Province. According to the survey in 2018, the site was rechecked and trial excavated in 2019, with an area of 14 m2. 131 specimens, mainly stone products, were found in the collection and trial excavation, including cores, flakes, blades, micro-blades, scrapers, choppers, pointed tools, hand-axes and grinded stone tools. In addition, a small amount of clay chips tempered with sand were also found. The site contains two cultural relics: Paleolithic and Neolithic. The main technical features of Paleolithic relics are blade and micro-blade technology, and the main raw materials of artifacts are siliceous hornfel and obsidian. Based on the technical characteristics of the stone artifacts and the 14C dating results, the site is dated to around 15-16 kaBP. Neolithic cultural remains belong to the category of Jingu culture in Tumen River Basin.

    Literature Reviews
    The discovery and study of the Paleolithic remains and sites in the source of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, Henan province
    REN Wenxun, LI Jingya, SONG Guoding
    2021, 40(05):  917-928.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0039
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    Danjiangkou Reservoir, located in the neighboring region of Henan, Shaanxi and Hubei, is the headwater of the South-to-North Water Diversion Project (SNWDP), which is an important ecological corridor for human migration and cultural exchanges between the northern and southern of China. In order to corporate with the construction of SNWDP, some archaeological institutes had conducted systematic investigations around the flooded area of Danjiangkou Reservoir since the 1990s, and more than 30 Paleolithic remains and fossil sites have been found merely in Xichuan County, Henan Province. Since 2009, both the IVPP and UCAS have conducted rescue excavations on more than 20 paleolithic sites. The excavation area exceeds 10000 m2 and more than 20000 stone artifacts have been discovered. This paper aims to demonstrate several achievements of the Paleolithic researches in the Danjiangkou Reservoir, Henan Province. Firstly, the extensive and continuous human activities indicate that this region is a concentrated area of early human activities. Secondly, the stoneware possesses the characteristics of both the south gravel-stone assemblage and the north flake-stone assemblage, giving rise to the fact that the exchange of lithic process technology did exist between the northern and the southern of China. Thirdly, some residue analyses, carried out on the surface of lithic tools, provide clues for understanding the environment around these remains and sites, as well as the utilization of ancestral plants. Fourthly, the remains and sites were scientifically determined from 500 kaBP to 10 kaBP, which is roughly equivalent to the time from late stage of early Paleolithic Period to the late Paleolithic Period, which was the most important period of Paleolithic Archaeology. Fifthly, some remains, such as pottery fragments, burnt earth, flint blade, were found in a few sites. They provide important information for resolving the origin and development of the blade technology as well as the transition from Paleolithic Period to the Neolithic Period.