The temporal lines are muscle attachment marks bilaterally on the surface of the skull. Their morphological variations are meaningful to study the physical features and masticatory function in human evolution. In order to know the temporal line classifications and variations in modern populations, 278 adult skulls from Asia, Africa and Europe were selected to observe and analyze. Based on the arc trend, line width, development degree, roughness and terminal position, the temporal lines are classified into various types, and their identifications are standardly defined and established. The database of various temporal line types in sides, sexes and regions were obtained, that can be used for additional studies in physical anthropology. The primary results of this study show that: 1) there is no significant differences between left and right skull; 2) there were no significant differences in arc trend types and development degree between male and female, or among different regions; 3) There are sex difference in the width and roughness types, showing males have higher percentages than females; 4) There are spatial significant differences in the width and roughness types: Super-wide striped type was only found in the specimens from Yunnan and northern China. The Europeans have a high proportion of ridged type and rough types. The Africans have a high proportion of ridged type and a low proportion of rough type; 5) The specimens of temporal line ending in the occipital bone are very few; 6) The width on the frontal and parietal bones were significantly correlated with each other, as well as with the temporal line arc type; the development degree types on the frontal and parietal bones were significantly correlated with each other, too.
The Ma’anshan site, located in Tongzi county, Zunyi city, Guizhou province, was discovered in 1980 and excavated in 1981, 1986 and 1990. The Ma’anshan site is a Late Pleistocene cave site in Yun-Gui plateau, which is famous for yielding the oldest formal bone tools in South China. However, lithic materials from the Ma’anshan site have yet been fully analyzed after the excavation. This paper preliminarily reports 1292 pieces of stone artifacts unearthed in situ and numbered by layers in the 1986 excavation. The excavation area in 1986 reaches nearly 25 m2, and uncovers 9 depositional layers which is divided into two cultural units separated by a depositional hiatus. The lower unit consists of depositional depositional layer 7 and layer 8, and the upper unit consists of layer 2 to layer 6. 14C and AMS14C dating on bone samples and U-series dating on cervid tooth indicate that the age of the lower unit dates back to 53 kaBP and the upper unit is around 36-15 kaBP.
The stone artifacts excavated from upper and lower units display differences in the aspects of raw material, size, core debitage reduction and tool retouch technology. First, the main raw materials of lower unit are siliceous limestone pebbles, however, chert nodules or blocks are the main raw materials of upper unit. Second, partly affected by size of raw materials, the stone artifact of lower unit are mainly small type in length (20≤L<50 mm) and medium type(50≤L<100 mm), but those of upper unit are mainly micro type (L<20 mm) and small type. Third, direct percussion is the dominate debitage technique adopted by ancient human at the Ma’anshan site. Nevertheless, apart from direct percussion, we identified a small number of vertical hammer bipolar flaking and ridged hammer bipolar flaking products from the upper unit, but not in the lower unit. The various debitage methods identified from the upper unit probably indicate ancient human can employ a diversity of debitage methods to process different raw materials. Fourth, blanks of tools from the lower unit are mainly flakes, while chunks are the common blanks of tools from the upper units.
Although, to some degree, stone artifacts between lower and upper cultural units does differ, however, these two units still belong to the same technological system overall. First, the raw materials are both local. Second, ancient humans mainly use chunks or flakes to manufacture tools, rarely directly producing pebble tools. Third, as for the core debitage technology, predetermined technology has not been found at the Ma’anshan site, but discoid core of the upper unit and some double platforms cores of the lower unit both indicate certain organization of the core debitage surfaces. Stone tools are dominated by various types of scrapers in these two units, and they have commonalities in retouch position, retouch length index, edge angle, etc.
Combining the research results of zooarchaeology, paleoclimate and paleoenvironment, we suppose that the technological variation between lower and upper unit could manifest the changes in subsistence patterns and mobility strategies of local population in response to climate change. However, due to space limitations, detailed studies on technological analysis of lithic artifacts and specific relationship between human behavior and environmental changes will be reported in the future.
The study of the Ma’anshan site is of great significance to understand the lithic technology in Guizhou and further to discuss the diversified adaptation of ancient humans on the Yun-Gui Plateau in the Late Pleistocene.
Keywords Ma’anshan site; Guizhou province; Late Pleistocene; Stone artifacts
Development and spread of the microblade technology are topics of interest and debate intense research relating to the cultural diffusion and ecological adaptation from the late Pleistocene to the early Holocene. In the 1950s, a large amount of microblade products at the Xiqiaoshan lithic manufacturing site located in the Pearl River Delta region was discovered, and reshaped our understanding of the geographical extent of microblade technology. When these microblades were first recovered, this tropical microblade industry was initially described by several scholars. The early publications mainly focused on morphological characteristics of the microblade products, and subsequently very little further research has been carried out. Now we need an in-depth analysis to interpret the reduction strategies of these microblade cores to inform our discussions of cultural diffusion and population migrations. Xiaoqiaoshan, about 40 km southwest of Guangzhou, is an old volcano mountain on the deltaic plain of Pearl River Delta. As Xiaoqiaoshan is rich in raw materials, including different kind of igneous rocks and chert, it is a manufacturing center for the early Holocene habitants in the region. Earlier reports released the results of radiocarbon dating on the shells around 7000-5900 BP. The Guye residential base site is just 10 km to the west of Xiqiaoshan, and provide some new informations. Different from the Xiqiaoshan site, the Guye site is a habitation place and its pottery and seeds are more conducive to dating accurately by radiocarbon method. The Guye site could also provide more details on the contemporaneous remains and help us to know how the microblades were used in this tropical area. The new dating results show that the microblades were used around 5900~5500 BP. All the available data show that the microblade industry appeared in tropical area of South China during the Middle Holocene. In this paper, 343 microblade cores from the Museum of Sun Yat-sen University were analyzed. They are all collected during the archaeological surveys in 1980’s. Based on the stone materials, blank types, striking platform types, striking platform quantities, and debitage surfaces, we established the models of reduction strategies of microblade technology at the Xiqiaoshan site. Through observing the microblade cores and the schemes of reduction strategies, this study reveals some of the main characteristics of the Xiqiaoshan microblade industry: Both the flake and chunk blanks were expediently used as microblade cores; the flake blanks are more controlled to form wedge-shaped cores, and with less dimensional variation; as the chunk blanks were shaped according to the sizes of raw material nodules, they are various in sizes; the multi-platforms reduction is the most prominent feature of the Xiqiaoshan microblade reduction, since microblade cores with double and even more platforms are rare in the regions of traditionally well-developed microblade industry (Northeast China, North China, Northwest China and the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau). This work not only summarized the characteristics of the microblade technology of the Xiqiaoshan site, but also compared it with the microblade techniques of other sites. The results of the current research enriched our knowledge of this tropical microblade industry and shed light on further understanding of the population migrations and cultural diffusion during the Middle Holocene.
Tongwan City, located in Jingbian County, Shaanxi province, is the capital of Daxia in the Sixteen States period. It had lasted for 575 years, including Northern Wei, Western Wei, Northern Zhou, Sui, Tang, Five Dynasties and Northern Song. Tongwan City lies in the agro-pastoral zone in North China, and has always been a place for people to migrate and communicate. This article refers to the methods listed in the “Anthropometric Manual” to analyze the craniofacial morphological characteristics of the human bones unearthed from the Tongwan City site. The results show that the ancient residents of Tongwan City were dominated by Asian Mongolian races. In terms of morphology, there were differences in ancient race types and the fusion of multiple ancient race types. In addition, there are individuals showing some traits of Europoid. The polymorphism and fusion of the craniofacial characteristics of the residents in the Tongwan city are consistent with the diachronic characteristics of ancient population evolution, and are related to the frequent population exchanges in the history of Tongwan City. The Europoid factor may be influenced by the Sogdians. The main composition of male and female residents may have different sources. As the replacement of major political power bodies, the proportion of farmers and herders also changes with it, to a certain extent.
Yue penalty, in other words, foot amputation, is one of the five corporal punishments in the judicial system during the pre-Qin period. Previous studies mainly focused on historical documents and bronze vessels related to the Yue penalty, lacking paleopathological observation and diagnosis of human remains. In this paper, we conducted a multidisciplinary analysis of the tomb M24, which was excavated from the Qijia East cemetery at the Zhouyuan site. The tomb owner is a female aged 30-35, whose right foot is lost due to the punitive amputation. Her right distal areas of tibia and fibula are fractured and fusion together. Therefore, the right lower leg is 5 cm shorter. According to the written records and archaeological finds, the speculated tools used for the Yue penalty are bronze knives, saws, drills as well as stones. The mortality of the Yue penalty at that time is extremely high. Survivors have to walk with a stick and to serve as a gatekeeper. Their lives are miserable because of low social status, poor nutrition, and discrimination from others. This is the first well-studied foot amputation case in ancient China, providing valuable materials to look into the penalty system, medical conditions, and social customs in the Western Zhou dynasty.
Among the ancient inhabitants of Haidai region, the earliest dental extractions in the Beixin culture were the removal of bilateral maxillary lateral incisors, and the single form and high incidence of teeth extraction may be related to the rite of passage. Combined with archaeological and ethnographic data, chiseling, knocking or beating should be the main ways to remove the teeth in the prehistoric inhabitants of the Haidai region, and the specific operation should be to use a small and hard tool against the tooth to be removed, then use stones and other tools to knock. The ancient inhabitants of the Haidai region treated the removed teeth relatively randomly or deliberately, and the original teeth space was not otherwise filled. The demise of the teeth extraction phenomenon probably began in the late Dawenkou culture, and the overall decline of the teeth extraction phenomenon occurred in the Haidai area into the Longshan culture period.
This paper is based on the statistical analysis of 12 indices of the human body of 63452 Chinese people aged from 18 to 97 years old, and the morphological characteristics of Chinese people at present were obtained. Studies have found that overall body type of Chinese people are generally long torso, mid-shoulder, mid-pelvic, and mid-leg type. Men have a mid-chest shape, and women have a wide-chested shape. As their age increase, the upper body of Chinese appears shorter, the ratio of upper body to lower body is smaller, the chest becomes wider, the lower part of torso appears wider, and the legs appear longer. Compared with the southern ethnic groups, the Mongolian and Turkic ethnic groups have a stronger body, a thicker chest, a taller upper body, shorter upper limbs, and a relatively narrower upper part of the torso (shoulder), and a wider lower part of torso (pelvis). The ratio of the length of the upper limbs to the length of the lower limbs is smaller. The study also found that compared with women of the same height, men’s upper limb length and lower limb length are generally smaller than women, and women have a greater sitting height value than men. Compared with the length of the torso, women do have shorter legs than men. Compared with Chinese men and women the same lower body length, the sitting height of women is larger than that of men. In the case of the same height, the sitting height of the Chinese is larger than that of the Eurasian and African races. That is, they have a higher upper body height.
Ten items of head facial characteristics of 1896 Miao primary and middle school students(919 males and 977 females)aged 6~16 in Lar mountain area were investigated by anthropometry method, and 13 cephalofacial index values were calculated by formula. The results were as follows: 1) The growth development in head and face of Miao students has following characteristics: The mean value of measuring items increased gradually with age, the mean values of head and face indicators of boys were higher than those of girls in the same age group, and there were significant difference in majority of age groups. 2) Overall, the values of length-breadth index of head, morphological facial index, morphological upper facial index, physiognomic facial index, zygomatic frontal index, physiognomic upper facial index, physiognomic upper facial height index of male students and morphological facial index, morphological upper facial index, physiognomic facial index, zygomatic mandibular index, physiognomic upper facial index of female students increased at first and then decreased with age. 3) The values of vertical cephalo-facial index of male students and length height index of head, breadth height index of head, transverse cephalo-facial index of female students increased gradually with age. 4) There were significant differences between the values of length height index of head, breadth height index of head, transverse frontoparietal index of male students and those of female students in majority of age groups. 5) Head shapes of Miao students of Lar Mountain area were characterized by mesocephaly, hypsicephalic and tapeinocephalic, and their facial types were mainly featured by euryprosopy and hypereuryen. 6) The results of the principal component showed that compared with other ethnic groups, the face type of boy was short and wide, and the head shape was long, while the face type of girl was shorter, and head type was longer and narrower of Miao ethnic group in Lar mountain. 7) The head and facial feature of Miao students in Lar Mountain is close to those of Tujia and Rongshui Miao, far away from Kazak and Han of Xinxiang.
Most of the studies on sitting height(h), lower limb length(L), and their ratio(h/L) were based on non-twin populations. To understand the relative influence of genetic and environmental factors on the sitting height, lower limb length and the ratio of sitting height to lower limb length of children and adolescents, we measured their standing height(H) and sitting height of 796 pairs of twins aged 6-18 years old, and computed their lower limb length and the ratio of h and L. Genetic analyses was done using structural equation models. After adjusting the age, the degree of heritability(d) of h and L in the 15-18 years old group(0.63≤d<0.78) was higher than that for h and L in other younger age groups(0.31≤d<0.68) in both sexes; the heritability of h/L in boys(0.16≤d<0.46) and girls (0.21≤d<0.57) was low except for that of h/L in girls (d=0.84) aged 9-11 years. Our study findings show that common and unique environmental factors exerted a stronger influence on these anthropometric measurements in children and adolescents aged 6-14 years, suggesting during the period of rapid growth, their h, L and h/L are more sensitive to environmental effects. When individuals approached maturity, the genetic effects became stronger.
The Longshan culture plays a vital role in the evolution of prehistoric social form, and also is a key period of agricultural production strengthened in China. As a regional center in the North Shandong Plain, the exploration of subsistence economy of the Chengziya site will contribute certainly to understanding the process of social complexity and civilization. In this research, phytolith has been used to explore the cultivation of crops, the crop processing methods, the utilization of wild plant resources, and the different human activities reflected by the 15 soil samples assemblages from different archaeological contexts. The results show that the Chengziya residents constructed an agriculture system with foxtail millet, broomcorn millet, rice, wheat, and barnyard millet(likely) and simultaneously gathered wild plants in the Longshan period. Meanwhile, low-requirement broomcorn millet was preferred in the cultivation, intensive field managements such as frequent weeding and irrigation might be practiced during the cultivation of other crop species. After ripening, crops were harvested likely by ear-plucking which led to fewer weeds and crop by-products involved and also later processed on household scales. Furthermore, the analysis based on different archaeological features revealed different aspects on the subsistence economy. The results from pits indicate daily life rubbish, crop processing, and grain cleaning before consumption may take place in different areas while the phytoliths from well and burials reveal more information related to the agricultural economy and plant utilization such as the production and utilization of crops and plants in the daily life and also in the funeral.
Nanyang basin is a geographical transition zone and cultural intersection area and its archaeological sites show some typical characteristics of the cultrue integration of South and North China. The Wenkangoudong locality of Western Zhou dynasty is an important site of the late Longshan Culture period in Nanyang basin. We attempt to discuss the planting patterns and characteristics of agricultural production comprehensively by analysising the macroremains and phytolith combining with the previous botanical evidence and dating results. The results show that the people of Wenkangoudong locality lived on dry farming by planting millets, accompanied by small amounts of rice and wheat during the late Longshan period. However, the latter crops played a relatively weak role in the lives of the ancient people. During the Western Zhou period, the dry-farming production mode was continued, and the planting scale was slightly expanded. No carbonized rice was discovered, but the analysis of phytolith reveals that rice still had been planted. Due to the political influence of Zhou dynasty and the demand of territory expansion, wheat gradually occupied a position in the daily lives of the ancient people. In general, the excavation and archaeobotanical research of Wenkangoudong locality could provide new materials for revealing the cultural features of the pre-Qin period sites in the southwestern Henan Province and their cultural exchange with the central plain sites.
This article focuses on the identification and analysis of faunal remains unearthed from the Gouwan site between 2007 and 2009 in Xichuan county, Henan Province. In the total excavation area of 5000 m2, more than 7700 faunal bone specimens were discovered, representing at least 23 species, including pig (Sus scrofa domesticus), dog (Canis familiaris), buffalo (Buballus buballus), rhinoceros (Rhinoceros sp. ), Asian elephant (Elephas maximus), bamboo rat (Rhizomys sinensis), masked civet (Paguma larvata taivana) and mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi). Based on the stratigraphy and the typology of unearthed artifacts, the cultural remains belongs to the Yangshao Culture period from the Gouwan site can be divided into four phases. Some thermophilic species, such as rhinoceros, Asian elephants and bamboo rats were discovered in the earlier three phases, but no thermophilic animals were found in the fourth phase. This contrast suggests that the climate of the earlier phases were warmer than that of the fourth phase. The numbers of hunted animals in the first and second phases are more than or equal to those of domestic animals, indicating that hunting outweighed or equaled with raising domestic animals in local subsistence. However, pig bones account for 90.7% and 87.9% of NISP in the third and the fourth phases respectively, showing that animal husbandry, instead of hunting and fishing became dominated in subsistence economy. In particular, three burials of animal bones were found dated to the third phase. Each has a complete skeleton of adult sow, among which one was in late pregnancy carrying at least 7 babies (No.K15), providing important materials for studying the early domestic pig breeding in China.
This report presents the preliminary results of a Paleolithic survey in the Chaohu Lake Region (CLR), Anhui Province. The investigation was conducted by Institute of Archaeology and Cultural Relics of Anhui Province in 2019, and a total of sixteen new paleolithic localities and one animal fossil locality were discovered. A former Paleolithic site-complex, named Wangchenggang, discovered in 1980’s was also reexamined. Nine hundred and thirty-nine stone artifacts and four pieces of broken animal fossils were found during the investigation. Quartzite dominates the raw materials of stone artifacts and most of them are made on cobbles. Technologically, the stone artifacts can be classified into flaked pieces, detached pieces, retouched pieces and bipolar technique products. The exploitation of free-hand core is high and the ratio of cortex is low. Most of flakes belong to type V and II, with some utilized materials coexistent. There are also some large flakes (L>10 cm) in the assemblage. According to the characteristics of stone artifacts, early human detached large flakes from the large cores and further used them as blanks to manufacture heavy-duty tools. On the basis of Zhangjiawan OSL dating results, The age of these paleolithic localities in the CLR were no later than 125 kaBP. The new discoveries bear great significance for studying early human dispersals, technological diversity and the possibility of Acheulean technology large flake in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River.
Yuxian basin, located in the southeast part of the Nihewan basin (senso lato) in Hebei Province, is an important area occupied by early hominins during Pleistocene. This report presents some preliminary results of the new Paleolithic survey conducted by the staff from the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Hebei Normal University from 2019 to 2020 in Yuxian basin. A total of 18 Pleistocene localities including 16 Paleolithic localities and 2 mammalian fossil localities, were newly discovered and confirmed, and 35 stone artifacts and a few mammalian fossil fragments were collected. The Paleolithic and fossil remains are buried in the Nihewan lacustrine sediments and loess. Typologically, the stone artifacts collected from these Paleolithic localities include hammerstone, cores (including microblade cores), debitage (whole flakes, flake fragments and chunks) and tools. The raw materials for stone knapping are dominated by volcanic rocks, followed by cherts and quartzite. The principal flaking and retouching technique were hard hammer percussion, while soft hammer had probably also been used when modifying bifacial preforms of wedge-shaped microblade cores. Based on the technological and typological characteristics of these stone artifacts, two different assemblages of lithic artifacts have been identified, one is a core-flake assemblage characterized by simple cores, flakes, lightly-retouched tools etc.; the other is a microblade assemblage characterized by wedge-shaped microblade cores. Based on the geomorphological and stratigraphic comparison in the Nihewan basin and the technological traits of lithic assemblage, it can be inferred that these new 18 discovered localities may be assigned to the Middle Pleistocene (n=4) and the Late Pleistocene (n=14). Furthermore, the two microlithic localities are more likely formed during the late Upper Pleistocene based on the comparison with the similar finds (Youfang site and Ma’anshan site) in the Nihewan basin of Yangyuan county.
The Yuping locality located at the front edge of second terrace of Songhe river, Hanjiang River Basin, Nanzhao county, Henan province, is discovered during the field survey conducted by Jilin University and Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology of Nanyang City in March year 2021. A total of 38 stone artifacts were collected from the surface and can be classified into five basic categories: Cores (n=4), flakes (n=3), chunks (n=4), retouched tools (n=22), and some blanks with obvious use wear (n=5). Quartz (n=31) was utilized as the main raw material for the production of stone artifacts, followed by sandstone, quartzite, etc. As shown by the characteristics of cores and flakes, freehand percussion was applied commonly, but bipolar technique also used to exploit some small quartz materials occasionally. All cores (n=4) with double and multiple platforms display some simple reduction methods without clear core preparation and organization. Most of the retouched tools were made on flakes. Side scrapers (n=13), unifacial points (n=4) and borers (n=2) are small in size and account for very large proportion in the toolkits, some of which were modified relatively fine. Several heavy-duty tools including chopper (n=1), chopping tool (n=1) and adze-like tool (n=1) can be identified at this site. In the meanwhile, some edges of several cores, flakes and chunks show distinct use-wear scars and can be regarded as scrapers and points. Based on the evidence from stratigraphy and lithic assemblage, we can speculate that this site belongs to the period of Upper Paleolithic. Above all, this site shares common features with the core-flake industry while also exist some regional traits, detailed analysis of which would make great sense in our understanding to the technological attributes and behavioral adaption in the transitional zone between northern and southern China.
The concept of paradigm is defined as the world view and behavioral pattern abided by the science community in one specific normal science universally. Since its creation in 1960’s, paradigm has been widely used in many scientific fields. It was introduced to archaeology discipline between 1970’s and 1980’s and has been widely discussed in domestic and oversea scholars. Archaeometry or archaeological science, the interdisciplinary subject based on the interplay of the natural sciences and archaeology, has developed quickly since 1960’s and had revolutionary impacts on the theories, methods and practices of archaeology. However, the archaeometric paradigms have never been discussed in domestic and international fields. On the basis of the author’s practices on teaching, research, and graduate training in the archaeometric field for 20 years, the author would like to put forward the archaeometric paradigm from the own perspective. At first, the paper introduced the paradigms of nature sciences and archaeology respectively. Subsequently, three paradigms of archaeometric studies were suggested for the first time, i.e., science paradigm, archaeology paradigm, and convergence paradigm of science and archaeology. The details on theories, methodology, and practices of these paradigms were demonstrated. The science paradigm focuses on the exploration of new scientific methods and analytical techniques in the research while the archaeology paradigm concentrates on the interpretation of scientific data within the archaeological contexts and tries to answer the archaeological questions. The convergence paradigm of science and archaeology converges the theories, methods and technology from many disciplines such as natural sciences, archaeology, history, anthropology and other related humanity sciences and social sciences, and its purpose is to solve the important archaeological questions. Furthermore, the contributions of each paradigms to archaeometric studies were also discussed. The science paradigm is the “engine” to accelerate the development of archaeometry, and while the archaeology paradigm is the “steering” to control the research direction of archaeometry. The convergence paradigm of science and archaeology is the “center console” to reconcile several fields of archaeometric research that will lead to the fusion of science and archaeology as a whole. No matter what paradigm the researchers would like to follow, they must build on the both grounds of scientific and archaeological knowledge structures. Finally, the author also puts forward some views on how to build the knowledge system of researchers under the research paradigm of scientific and technological archaeology.