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    A survey on physical characteristics of Uigur Nationality
    Ai Qionghua, Xiao Hui, Zhao Jianxin et al.
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    1993, 12 (04): 357-365.  
    Abstract6159)      PDF(pc) (455KB)(198)       Save
    A survey on anthropomctry and somatoscopy of 529 adult Uigurs from 20 to 25 of age(271 males and 258 females) living in Yili of Xinjiang, the north--west in China,was carried out in May 1991.
    The results show that the Uigurs have their main characteristics as follows:
    The hair is straight in form and black in color in most cases. The eye is blown in color and the fold of upper palpebra is observable in most individuals.The Mongoloid fold is observable in 60.74% and 40.70% for males and females, respectively.
    The height of nose root is medium and high in most cases. The form of the nasal bridge is straight or concave. The height--breadth index of nose is 62.39 for males and 62.56 for females,the type of nose belongs to Leplorrhiny. The form of the carlobe is circular in 51.66%cases. There is Darwin's tubercle in most cases (71.21%).
    The length- -breadth index of head is 88.62 for males and 88.78 for females and the type of the head belongs to Hyperbrachycephaly. The breadth-height index of head is 65.03 for male sand 66.20 for females and belongs to T apeinoccphaly. The length--height index of head is 73.5Sand 74.69 for males and females, respectively, and the type of the head belongs to Hypsiccphaly. The average statures are 1684.6mm for males and 1 578.8mm for females.they belong to the Ultramedium and high types according to Martin's classification in both of males and females.
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    Stature characteristics of the Chinese Mongolians
    DALAI Wuyun, ZHENG Lianbin, LI Yonglan
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (02): 282-294.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0015
    Abstract4490)   HTML783)    PDF(pc) (6668KB)(488)       Save

    The paper is to study the stature of Mongolians in China. The adults stature of 4410 Chinese Mongolians (43% man; 57% women) was measured so as to analyze the stature classification and the variation trend of stature between different age groups and ethnic groups. The stature of Mongolian men is hyper-middle stature, while that of women is middle stature. Among 13 Mongolian ethnic groups, the stature of men in Ejina Torgouts are the tallest but the shortest ones in Yunnan while the stature of women in Ordos are the tallest but the shortest ones in Yunnan. The tall stature of men and women are with the highest occurrence rate, while with the lower occurrence rate of shorter and taller stature. The stature of Chinese Mongolians is close to the stature of other Chinese northern ethnic groups, higher than that of Chinese 7 southern ethnic groups, lower than that of Han nationality in the north, higher than that of Han nationality in the south, and lower than Japanese and Koreans. The stature difference among 13 ethnic groups is statistically important. Mongolians have higher stature than other ethnic groups in China.

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    An investigation report on the incidence of body odor in Mongolian and Han populations in Yikezhaomeng area, Inner Mongolia
    Yang Guangyin, Peng Suge
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    1994, 13 (01): 80-82.  
    Abstract3159)      PDF(pc) (154KB)(131)       Save
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    Comparison of head and facial features among Kazaks, Uigurs and Mongols of Xinjiang
    Ai Qionghua, Sai Fuding, Xu Yuhe; Abudu Aini
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    1996, 15 (01): 50-57.  
    Abstract3099)      PDF(pc) (2551KB)(366)       Save
    A survey on somatoscopy of head and facial features was carried out in Kazak, Uigur and Mongol ethnic groups, living in Yili of Xinjiang, Northwest China and totally 1611 adults (551 Kazaks, 527 Uigurs and 533 Mongols) were investigated in 1991.
    The results had been compared among the three ethnic groups from each other. There are many similarities among Kazaks, Uigurs and Mongols. The common features in the three ethnic groups include the predominance of ovoid and ellipse facial forms, brown eyes, good fold of upper palpebra, ovoid and ellipse auricular forms, circular and quadrangular forms of earlops and straight and black hairs.
    Kazaks are more similar to Mongols than to Uigurs.
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    Paternal genetic structure of Han and Hui male populations in Shandong
    ZHANG Jinke, DONG Wei, TANG Guangfeng, HUANG Xiaoliang, YANG Zhen, WANG Xiaojun, ZHANG Jie, ZHAO Yingjian, ZHU Yiqing, JIANG Li
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (01): 65-72.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0007
    Abstract2909)   HTML253)    PDF(pc) (1325KB)(610)       Save

    This study is based on 75 Y-SNPs and 23 Y-STRs to analyze the paternal genetic structure of Shandong Han and Hui males and provides basic data for forensic application and population genetics. Mini-sequencing was used to type 75 Y-SNPs of 187 individuals of Han and 130 individuals of Hui. The PowerPlex®Y23 kit was used to type 23 Y-STRs of all individuals. Allele frequency, haplotype frequency and haplogroup frequency were calculated by direct counting. Gene diversity, haplotype diversity and haplogroup diversity were calculated according to the formula D=n(1-∑pi2)/(n-1). The median-joining networks were constructed using NETWORK 5.0 and NETWORK Publisher. The research results showed that haplogroup O-M175, C-M130, N-M231, Q-M242 were the major haplogroups of the Han population, and haplogroup O-M175, J-M304, R-M207, C-M130, N-M231 were the major haplogroups of Hui population. 187 haplotypes were detected in Han populations based on twenty-three Y-STR loci, and the haplotype diversity was 1.000. And 121 haplotypes were detected in Hui populations, the haplotype diversity was 0.9988. The Networks showed that the individuals of same haplogroup were relatively independently clustered. There were shared haplogroups between Han and Hui populations, as well as some population specific haplogroups. For example, haplogroups J-M304 and R-M207 were prevalent in Hui population, while haplogroup Q-M242 was prevalent in Han population. The major haplogroup of both populations was haplogroup O-M175. Haplogroups J-M304 and R-M207 were distributed at high frequencies in Shandong Hui male population, and haplogroups Q-M242 were distributed at high frequencies in the Shandong Han male population. A certain percentage of unique Y chromosome haplotypes in western Eurasia and the Middle East were retained among the Shandong Hui male population.

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    Somatotype characteristics of the Mongolian in China
    LI Yonglan, ZHENG Lianbin
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2020, 39 (03): 450-460.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2019.0029
    Abstract2579)   HTML366)    PDF(pc) (16048KB)(176)       Save

    The Heath-Carter somatotyping method is used to study somatotypes of 4810 adults (2117 males and 2693 females) of 14 different Mongolian groups. Endomorphic and mesomorphic body shape of Mongolians are significantly positively correlated with age. In contrast, ectomorphic body shape is significantly negatively correlated with age; that is, with an increase of age, the body’s degree of linearity becomes smaller, and thus the somatotype tends to be round and thick. Male and female somatotypes of Mongolians in Chinaare all concentrated on the body shape of endo-mesomorph,balanced endo-mesomorph, meso-endoderm. With the increase of age, the occurrence of the three somatotypes is a significant positive correlation with age. Compared with the Han, Mongolians are more thick and strong. Our results of the principal components analysis show that the body’s degree of linearity is small, body fat is well developed and bone and muscle mass are less in Mongolians of the three northeastern provinces. On the standard somatotype chart, the point distribution of northern Mongolians is dense and shows that Mongolians in the north are closer in body shape to each other, and that Yunnan Mongolians in the south are very different because of small endomorphic and large ectomorphic traits. In Chinese ethnic groups that have been studied using the Heath-Carter somatotype, the Mongolian has the most developed body fat and the smallest body linearity degree.

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    Somatotype characteristics of the She people in Fujian
    HU Rong
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2021, 40 (05): 824-833.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0027
    Abstract2420)   HTML3185)    PDF(pc) (10839KB)(1622)       Save

    According to historical records, She people had lived at the junction of Guangdong, Fujian and Jiangxi before Tang Dynasty. Today She people are mainly distributed in seven provinces, including Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Anhui, Hunan and Guizhou. However, there has been a great controversy about the origin and migration of She people. In this study, we randomly selected 504 She nationality adults (285 males and 219 females) aged above18 years old from Fu’an city and Fuding city of Fujian Province, with measuring 10 Physical parameters including stature, weight, biepicondylar breadth of the humerus, biepicondylar breadth of the femur, circumference of tensed arm, circumference of claf, thickness of triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, supraspinale skinfold and middle calf skinfold. The Heath-Carter somatotype method was used to analyze the somatotype of She people in eastern Fujian. The average somatotype of She males (5.02-3.76-1.76) was endodermic, while the average somatotype of females (6.91-3.50-1.23) was endodermic. Compared with other southern ethnic minorities in China, the results show that somatotype of She people is closer to Han groups, especially the Han people from southern and eastern Fujian, and Han people from Guangxi, but more different from southern ethnic minority, which suggested that formation process of She nationality is closely related to Han nationality. This study provides the biological clue for origin of She, and also provides the necessary data and materials for the anthropological research in China.

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    Canine fossa and evolution of the human mid-facial bones
    Francesc RIBOT Trafí, Mario GARCÍA Bartual, Alfredo José ALTAMIRANO Enciso, Qian WANG
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (02): 193-217.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2020.0016
    Abstract2259)   HTML177)    PDF(pc) (83724KB)(775)       Save

    The canine fossa is an important feature in the facial skeleton of many hominins, including modern humans. However, its phylogenetic significance is debated. Some researchers consider it as a plesiomorphic characteristic in a generalized face that, with some exceptions, is found in both extinct and extant great apes and in the hominins. Others consider that the canine fossa is a derived characteristic only found in Homo sapiens and its direct ancestors, and that it is related to an arched zygomatic-alveolar crest (ZAC). However, this relationship is not always fulfilled, and in Homo sapiens, there is a notable variability: An arched ZAC with the presence or absence of a canine fossa, and straight oblique ZAC with presence or absence of a canine fossa. In this sense, we hypothesize that the canine fossa is related to the degree of anterior extension of the maxillary sinus and that the morphology of the ZAC is related to the degree of lateral extension of said sinus. During the hominine evolution, the canine fossa has undergone different transformations, such as the maxillary furrow (Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus), maxillary fossula (P. robustus), and the sulcus maxillaris (Homo ergaster), or has been obliterated (Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus boisei, Kenyanthropus platyops, Homo rudolfensis). In the taxa where it has been obliterated, the mechanism of obliteration is different in the hominins of the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene compared to those of the Middle Pleistocene (Homo heidelbergensis/rhodesiensis, Homo nenaderthalensis). The facial morphology of H. rhodesiensis would exclude it from the line evolving to H. sapiens.

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    Studies on blood group of minority nationalities living in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region -The distribution of ABO-blood group in nine nationalities
    Wang Guangjie, Wang Gang, Shang Jinqing et al.
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    1994, 13 (02): 165-170.  
    Abstract2214)      PDF(pc) (445KB)(75)       Save
    The distribution of ABO blood group from nine nationalities was reported. They may be divided into three groups: 1.B>O>A>AB. Han and Hui nationalities belong to this group. 2.0>B>A>AB. It was found in Mongolian, Ewenke. Elunchun, Korean, Russian and Man nationalities. 3.B>A>O>AB. Only Daur nationlity has this characteristic.
    The genetic frequency r(0) is higher in Ewenke (0.7549), lower in Daur (0.5234) and Hui (0.5171) nationalities, p(A) is lower in Ewenke (0.1138), higher in Korean (0.2277) and Daur (0.2253), q(B) is higher in Hui (0.2818), lower in Ewenke (0.1313) and Korean (0.1753).
    Comparing with the same nationality living in other parts of China, obvious difference was found only in the same nationality of Elunchun or of Ewenke.
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    The physical characters of Zang (Tibetan) Nationality
    Zhang Zhenbiao
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    1985, 4 (03): 250-258.  
    Abstract2094)      PDF(pc) (610KB)(238)       Save
    A somatological survey on 105 males and 40 females of Zang nationality living in Xizang was carried out by the author in July, 1980.
    Judging from all nonmetrie data from more than 100 males and females, the features of Zang nationality are obviously similar to those of Mongoloid. In addition, all the means of measurements in Zang nationality fall within the range of the variations of those of other minorities living in China, and also fall within the range of Han nationality except the least frontal breadth (see table 6) . It is probable that Zang nationality belongs to the physical type of modern Chinese.
    In view of the cluster graph of kinship matrix for 11 groups of other minorities, Dy values and Cq2 values, the physicel characters of Zang nationality are basically similar to those of the minorities and Han nationality living in the priovinces of northwest and north China.
    The author believes that Zang nationality originally evolved from the ancient inhabitants during Neolithic period in Xizang region and later gradually formed the modern appearance by mixing with the ancient inhabitants migrated from the north and northwest region of China.
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    Modeling the origin of modern humans in light of new evidence
    NI Xijun
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (04): 576-592.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0028
    Abstract2060)   HTML819)    PDF(pc) (1296KB)(1488)       Save

    Anatomically modern human (AMH) is a term used for living and fossil humans that have globular skull, short and flat face, gracile skeleton, and a set of other osteological distinctive features different from most of the archaic humans. Researchers, who take Multiregional Evolution model (MEM) as their paradigm, use AMH as a counter part of archaic Homo sapiens, while Recent African Origin (RAO) supporters use the term for all H. sapiens. MEM was derived from continuous evolution ideology. Branching evolution was believed to be negligible during the rise of modern populations. The similarities between different local populations were regarded as the results of convergent evolution. RAO on the other hand suggests that human evolution follows the cladistic form as in the other creatures. AMHs belong to a monophyletic group and have a single origin in Africa. Non-African human populations dispersed out of Africa. Archaic human populations in Europe and Asia were replaced by the anatomically modern human during the dispersal of the latter, and there were very limited genetic exchanges between modern and archaic human populations. Recent advances in ancient DNA and proteomic researches revealed that inter-specific interbreeding did occur among H. sapiens, H. neanderthalensis and the unnamed Denisovan populations. Genomic analyses, however, indicate that regions with a high frequency of Neanderthal derived alleles in modern human genomes are mostly related to deleterious genes. Strong reproductive isolation between modern humans and Neanderthals was also detected. Instead of supporting the multiregional model, the molecular data actually reveals that modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans are all belong to their own species at genetic level. Debates over taxonomic assignments of some specific fossils may not be helpful for detecting the evolutionary pattern of Homo in general and the origin of H. sapiens in particular, because most of recent comparisons and analyses are at specimen or population levels, not at species level. Our recent parsimony analyses and Bayesian inferring based on large data matrix revealed that the AMHs formed a monophyletic group. Another monophyletic clade represented by Dali and Harbin skulls is the sister of this group. The divergent time between Neanderthals and AMHs is over 1 million years. This estimation is much older than previous aDNA inferring, but is consistent with the recent results based on genome-wide genealogical analyses. Biogeographic model tests also reveal that a model including multiple multi-directional dispersals among Asia, Europe and Asia statistically fits the phylogenetic tree better than the MEM and RAO.

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    The Out of East Asia theory of modern human origins supported by recent ancient mtDNA findings
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2019, 38 (04): 491-498.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2019.0068
    Abstract2050)   HTML239)    PDF(pc) (1138KB)(515)       Save

    It was in 1983 that scientists constructed the first molecular model of modern human origin based on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogenetic tree, and concluded that modern people originated in Asia. However, in 1987, the Out of Africa model also known as African Eve model was proposed and replaced the original model. But the infinite site assumption and the molecular clock hypothesis on which the African Eve model was based have been widely considered to be unrealistic. In recent years, we have proposed a new molecular evolution theory, namely the maximum genetic diversity(MGD) theory, and used it to reconstruct a new model of human origin, which is basically consistent with the Multiregional model and has the root of modern humans in East Asia. The main difference between the African Eve and our Asia model in the mtDNA tree is the relationship between haplotypes N and R. The African Eve model says that N is the ancestor of R, and our model indicates it is the opposite. In this research, we studied those mtDNA data published from ancient samples, focusing on the relationship between mitochondrial haplogroup N and R. The results show that the three oldest humans (one from 45,000 years ago and the other two about 40,000 years) belong to the haplogroup R. In the human samples from 39,500 to 30,000 years ago, most of them belong to the sub-haplogroup U downstream of the haplogroup R, and only two of them fall into the haplogroup N group(Oase1 is 39,500 years ago, Salkhit is 34,426 years ago). The haplotypes of these two individuals are not part of any prensent N downstream haplotypes and so may be close to the roots of the haplogroup N. These ancient DNA data reveal that the haplogroup R is about 5,000 years older than the haplogroup N, thus confirming the East Asia model and invalidating the African Eve model.

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    Polymorphisms of the Uygur People’s Ocular Features from Different Regions of Xinjiang
    WANG Bin, YANG Shengmin
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2015, 34 (02): 253-259.  
    Abstract1989)      PDF(pc) (2249KB)(106)       Save
    Uygur people from different parts of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region show various eye colors, the majority of which are dark brown appearing 90.45% of the time. Other kinds of light colored eyes (sky blue, gray, light green, light yellow) have appearance rates that average 9.55%. In general, the appearance frequency of light colored eyes gradually increases from east (Hami) to west (Kashgar). The eyebrows of Uygur people grow pretty well and have a relatively high rate of eyebrow connection. From east to west, Uygur people’s eyebrows gradually appear to be bushier and have higher frequency of connection. Among all Uygur peoples, upper eyelid folds have relatively high frequency that average to 62.07%, gradually decreasing from east to west, while inner canthal folds have a lower frequency with an average 48.63%, gradually falling from east to west. In conclusion, the ocular features of the Uygur people are characteristic of their national identity. All investigated indices of their eyes have values that are inbetween that of the northern Mongolian and Europeans. These ocular features shown by modern Uygur people coincide with their ethnic composition and evolutionary path of their ancestors.
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    Uygur ethnic composition and evolution based on incidences of typical Mongoloid physical characteristics
    WANG Bin, YANG Shengmin
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2017, 36 (02): 227-235.  
    Abstract1914)      PDF(pc) (552KB)(199)       Save
    By exploring the origin, composition, physical characteristics and evolution of the Uygur nationality we can better reveal historical and cultural changes of this ethnic group, which will benefit the protection and development of this nation. Archaeological anthropology, especially results of molecular archaeology, show that the ancient Xinjiang residents are not from a single ethnic origin but instead include European and Mongolian components. Polymorphisms in physical characteristics and genetic traits of modern Xinjiang residents, especially the difference in Uygurs of different regions is undoubtedly closely related to the ancient complex racial background of this group. Modern Uygur mostly have physical characteristics of Mongolian ethnicity, which shows that the modern Uygur ethnic origin is mainly from Mongolia. Different incidences of Mongolian physical characteristics throughout the Uygur living in different regions of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region including gradient changes trending from east to west embody indicate how the infiltration and fusion of Mongolian traits developed in the Uygur.
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    Differences between the hand-wrist and the knee in assigned skeletal ages
    Xi Huanjiu, Alex F. Roche
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    1990, 9 (01): 20-26.  
    Abstract1819)      PDF(pc) (409KB)(76)       Save
    Skeletal ages were assessed for 4902 pairs of hand--wrist and knee radiographs of children aged 2 to 17 years. The FELS method was used to assess the hand-wrist and the RWT method was used to assess the knee. The mean absolute differences, within ageand sex-specific groups, ranged from 0.34 to 0.87 years. The SD of the differences ranged from 0.31 to 0.68 years and, like the means, tended to increase with age until about 8-l1 years. The means and SD were generally larger for the boys than for the girls except after 14 years. Within age-and sex-specific groups, the maximum differences were from 1.45 to 2.99 years. These maximum differences changed irregularly with age but tended to increase until 11 years in the boys and 9 years in the girls. These large absolute differences between the skeletal ages of the hand -wrist and the knee cannot be explained completely by the effects of observer errors. These skeletal ages are not interchangeable; in at least 5% of children, the choice of the area for skeletal age assessment will markly influence the evaluation of individuals, the prediction of adult stature and the selection of ages for epiphyseadeses.
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    Differences of maximum growth age in height, mass among Han, Mongolian and Japanese students
    Deli Geer, Wuyun Gerile
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2021, 40 (05): 847-856.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0033
    Abstract1730)   HTML37)    PDF(pc) (18182KB)(155)       Save

    To analysis the development status of height and mass with Han, Mongolian students in Inner Mongolia and Japanese students aged 7-18 in 2014, and explore national difference of the maximum growth age in height and mass. The data of Han and Mongolian students were from “2014 survey on the physical fitness and health of students in Inner Mongolia autonomous region”; Data of Japanese students were obtained from “statistical information of the Heisei 26 annual sports survey” of Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology-Japan. The national differences of the development status of height and mass, maximum growth age in height and mass(MIA-H, MIA-W) among Han, Mongolian and Japanese students were compared. The Results showed that height of both Han male and female were taller than Mongolian and Japanese at aged 7-18, 1.98 cm and 1.54 cm higher than Mongolian, and 2.59 cm and 2.91 cm higher than Japanese on average respectively(P<0.05). The height of Mongolian male and female were 0.61 cm and 1.37 cm taller than Japanese (P<0.05).The mass of Han male was 1.97 kg Heavier than that of Mongolian and 4.01 kg Heavier than that of Japanese on average(P<0.05). The mass of Han female was similar to Mongolian, and 2.59 kg and 2.67 kg heavier than Japanese on average respectively(P<0.05). Han boys has the earliest maximum growth age in height(HIA-H) at 10.66 years, which is followed by Japanese in 11.56 years and Mongolian in 12.39 years. The HIA-H of Japanese female was 9.73 years; Han and Mongolian female were 10.41 years and 10.10 years respectively. The maximum growth age of mass(MIA-W) among Han Mongolian and Japanese male were 12.52 years,12.62 years and 11.45 years; MIA-W in female was 10.59 years, 10.34 years and 10.14 years respectively. In 2014, the development levels of height and mass of Han and Mongolian students aged 7-18 in Inner Mongolia were higher than Japanese students of the same age. HIA-H of Han male was 1.73 years earlier than Mongolian and 0.9 years earlier than Japanese respectively, and HIA-W of Han and Mongolian male were 1.17 years and 1.07 years later than Japanese. HIA-H of Japanese female was 0.68 and 0.37 years earlier than Han and Mongolian.

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    A study of recent Human skulls from Hong Kong: assessment of sex and of regional population
    Wang Linghong
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    1989, 8 (03): 222-230.  
    Abstract1661)      PDF(pc) (514KB)(100)       Save
    The Hong Kong skulls of known sex were collected by Dr. N. G. Jablonski and her colleagues in the Department of Anatomy of the University of Hong Kong. With her kind invitation, the present author measured and observed a part of this collection. The measurements of 117 craniometric traits provide the basis for a study of sexual differences and sexual assessment and for a study of their differences from the Taiyuan skulls and assessment of regional population.
    T tests reveal that male Hong Kong skulls have greater linear dimensions than female ones, while the naso-malar angle and the profile angle of frontal bone in female group are statistically significantly ot very significantly greater than in male. The stepwise discriminant analysis selects basi-bregmatic height, nasal height, internal biorbital breadth, profile angle of frontal bone and depth of mandibular notch on left side as its variables in the function, and produces the accuracy of 93.1%. Using other combinations of variables, the other 5 discriminant functions are also effective.
    In the comparison of regional populations, Hong Kong male skulls have longer, higher and somewhat broader cranial part, broader nose and prominent alveolar prognathism, while Taiyuan male skulls have higher facial part, that is, morphological and upper facial height, orbital height, nasal height, height of mandibular symphysis, and are combined with more prominent mental protuberance.
    In general, the differences between Hong Kong male skulls and Taiyuan ones are smaller than the sexual differences in either region, so that the discriminant functions for distinguishing between these two regional populations lead to lower percentages of cases correctly classified. While the accuracy for identification of mandibles alone is as low as ca. 70%, the prediction for skulls either with or without mandibles is practicable. The discriminant function covering basi-bregmatic height, n-pr upper facial height, orbital height on left side, nasal breadth, bregmatic angle, bicoronoid breadth, arc of symphysis; mandibular angle on left side produces the accuracy of prediction of as high as 85.3% and the accuracy of blind test of 82.6%. The percentages of correct prediction for the other 3 functions are also greater than 80%. In view of the respective homogeneity of the Southern Chinese skulls and the Northern ones, these functions might be applicable to distinguish regional populations in a broader geographical range without considerable decrease of the accuracy.
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    Physical characters of Zhuang nationality in Guangxi
    Zhang Zhenbiao, Zhang Jianjun
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    1983, 2 (03): 260-271.  
    Abstract1604)      PDF(pc) (649KB)(158)       Save
    A somatological survey on 245 males and 61 females of Zhuang nationality living in Guangxi was carried out by the authors in January, 1980.
    The results of the studies are summarized as follows:
    The physical characters of Zhuang nationality
    The hair is straight in form and black in color in most cases. The form of the head belongs to short-wide type and cephalic index mostly belongs to Brachycephaly.
    Brown eye color is commonly represented in both sexes. There are not Mongolian folds in most cases. Double eye-lids are observed in high percentage. The palpebral opening is o£ the wide type and its direction is of horizontal type.
    The profile view of the nasal bridge is mainly of wavy type. The nasal index belongs to Mesorrhiny. The facial form in most cases is of ovoid type. According to the component classification of the morphological facial height and facial breadth, most of them belong to low-wide type. The morphological facial index belongs to Euryprosopy.
    The relationship between Zhuang and other nationalities
    In comparison with other minority nationalities in "Rm" value, Zhuang nationality is closer to Li, Buyi and Yi nationalities. As to the relationship with Han nationality living in different provinces, Zhuang nationality is by "Rm" value, closer to Han nationality living in Guangxi, Guangdong, Fujian and Hunan provinces. Zhuang nationality is basically similar to the other inhabitances living in South China in physical1 characters.
    Zhuang nationality is different 任om Han living in Guangxi mainly in the fact that they have lower morphological facial height, lower height of nose and that of head.
    According to these analyses we consider that Zhuang nationality belongs to South China pattern in physical characters, like other inhabitances living in South China, and may originate from a common ancestor.
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    Chronology of lithic artifact sites and hominin distribution from Early to Middle Pleistocene in China
    LU Ying, SUN Xuefeng, WANG Shejiang, LU Huayu
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2021, 40 (03): 411-426.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0038
    Abstract1552)   HTML921)    PDF(pc) (17485KB)(1371)       Save

    Hominin fossils and Paleolithic sites of Early and Middle Pleistocene in China can provide information to understand hominin behavioral and living environments, while a chronological framework is the basis for analyzing hominin evolution, migration, and relationship with climate change during the Pleistocene era. In the past 20 years, hominin records in China steadily increased because of the Paleolithic excavation and the advancement of dating techniques, providing amplified materials for establishing age frameworks. This study analyzed 95 Early to Middle Pleistocene sites with numerical age estimates. The distribution patterns are shown under the loess-paleosol chronology constraints and a relatively continuous chronology of hominin activities is established from approximately 2 MaBP to the last interglacial period. These sites are mainly distributed in four regions of the Nihewan Basin and the adjacent Zhoukoudian, Qingling Mountains Range, and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and South China, where the maximum intensity of hominin activities occurred in order during the Early Pleistocene, Middle Pleistocene, and in the late part of Middle Pleistocene, respectively. Various excavated sites still lack chronological study or encounter issues in dating. Therefore, improvement of chronological study is necessary.

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    Digital hair distribution of the Hui and Han nationalities in Ningxia
    HUO Zheng-hao; JIAO Hai-yan; PENG Liang; CHEN Yin-tao; XU Fang
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2003, 22 (01): 57-61.  
    Abstract1503)      PDF(pc) (159KB)(62)       Save
    This paper investigated a random sample of 316 Hui nationality (166 males, 150 females) and 542 Han nationality (253 males, 289 females) in Ningxia, aged from 17 to 23. The results showed that hair existed on the proximal phalangeal segments in all people except two females in Hui nationali- ty. The frequency of middle phalangeal segments' hair (MPSH) has no significant difference between males and females in the same nationality, and between Hui and Han nationality (P >0.05). The fre- quency in order of MPSH was found 4 >3 >5 >2. Hair distribution on both hand in same individual was fundamentally symmetrical. The gene frequency of existence of the MPSH in 13 populations was compared and analysed.
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