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    15 May 2019, Volume 38 Issue 02
    A study of stone artifacts from 2014-2015 excavations at the Wulanmulun Locality 2, Ordos, Inner Mongolia
    LEI Lei, LIU Yang, HOU Yamei, ZHANG Jiafu, BAO Lei, HU Yue, YANG Jungang
    2019, 38(02):  157-165.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2019.0013
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    The Wulanmulun site, located in Kangbashi District, Ordos City, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, North China, consists of three localities, namely Loc.1, Loc.2 and Loc.3. This site is situated on the left bank of the Wulanmulun River and lies at an altitude of 1281m. The Loc.2 was excavated tentatively in 2011 and formally in 2014 and 2015. The excavation exposed an area of 25m2with five cultural layers. A total of 318 stone artifacts and eight animal fossils was uncovered during the 2014 and 2015 field seasons, along with an area of animal footprints unearthed during the excavation. Stone artifacts include cores, flakes, bipolar products, tools(denticulates, notches, points, end-scrapers, awls) and so on. In addition, the cultural layers have yielded optically stimulated luminescence dates ca. 60 ka.
    Technologically, the Loc.2 is dominated by flakes (n=223; 71.06%), followed by tools (n=33; 10.38%), chunks (n=27; 8.49%), cores (n=26; 8.18%), and manuports (n=6; 1.89%). Lithic raw materials derive from local sources. Quartzite dominates, while quartz and chert are less common. The majority of artifacts is small in size. Hard-hammer direct percussion was applied extensively, and the presence of bipolar products indicates that bipolar technique was also used. Denticulates and notches are important tools in the stone artifact assemblage. Tools were mainly retouched on the dorsal surface by freehand percussion.
    The lithic assemblage of Wulanmulun site has the attributes of a small tool industry in North China. Integrated research on the site in future may potentially shed light on the evolutionary trajectories of lithic technologies and human behavior in North China during the Late Pleistocene period.

    A study of stone artifacts found in the Tianhuadong Paleolithic site, Heqing, Yunnan
    RUAN Qijun, LIU Jianhui, HU Yue, LI Bo, YANG Changcheng, LUO Xingrong
    2019, 38(02):  166-181.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2018.0047
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    The Tianhuadong Paleolithic site is representative of a number of Late Pleistocene sites in the Caifeng River Paleolithic localities, which are located in the middle valley of the Jinshajiang River, Yunnan Province. The materials studied in this paper were found during field surveys and test excavations at Tianhuadong conducted in 2010, 2013 and 2016. Test excavation at the Tianhuadong site is located at the slope area in front of the cave, and five geological layers can be divided throughout the sequence. Among them, layers 2 to 5 belong to the cultural deposits that characterized by red silty clay. Dating results for each cultural layer are in stratigraphically consistent order and are between 95-50 kaBP. In total, 1122 stone artifacts have been found at the site, with basalt being the predominantly exploited raw material. The lithic assemblage at Tianhuadong possesses a diverse cultural appearance, as shown in various flaking technologies and tool types. Some specialized specimens, including prepared cores, elongated flakes, Levallois-like flakes, flakes produced from classic discoidal cores and Quina-like scrapers represent the unusual technological characteristics of the Tianhuadong site, which are similar to some Middle Paleolithic technological elements in the West.

    A report on 2019 excavation of the Gezishan Locality 15 in Qingtongxia of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
    GUO Jialong, YAO Yueyin, WANG Huimin, LIU Decheng, NIAN Xiaomei, PENG Fei
    2019, 38(02):  182-190.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2019.0030
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    This paper describes the excavation, stratigraphy, and lithic assemblages of locality 15, a Late Pleistocene to Holocene site from the Gezishan site complex. A trench about 16m2was excavated in 2015. Four layers were exposed within more than three meters of sandy sediments. 155 lithic artifacts and three fragile fragments of mammal fossils were unearthed. The lithic assemblages are simple core-and-flake technology. Quartzite pebbles provided the largest number of knapped pieces. Retouched tools are rare but are dominated by scrapers. Considering the gaps in chronology and local environmental change during the Pleistocene and Holocene, the relationship between human activity and climate change should be further investigated in this region.

    The stone artifacts from the Fenglin site, Jilin Province
    LI Wanbo, CHEN Quanjia, ZHANG Fuyou
    2019, 38(02):  191-199.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2018.0037
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    The Fenglin late Paleolithic site was discovered by Zhang Fuyou. It is located in Fenglin village of Manjiang town, Fusong county in Jilin Province. 217 lithic artifacts were collected from the site. These lithic artifacts include cores, flakes, microblades, tools and debris. Obsidian is the predominant raw material. Different types of scrapers are the dominant retouched tools, and the retouch on these tools is exquisite. It is a typical microblade technology site in northeast of China. The handaxe first found in the site is quite important in this area.

    A preliminary research on core typology from the Laonainaimiao site in Zhengzhou, Central China
    CHEN Youcheng, QU Tongli, ZHANG Songlin, GU Wanfa, WANG Songzhi, WANG Youping
    2019, 38(02):  200-211.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2018.0024
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    The Laonainaimiao site, located at the eastern foot of Songshan Mountain in central East Asia, is an open-air site with multi-layers of human occupations during the middle of Late Pleistocene. The site was excavated between 2011 and 2013, and produced abundant cultural remains including lithics, animal bones, and fire places, dated between 41 kaBP and 40 kaBP(cal. 45 kaBP). Cores from this site can be subdivided into different types (A, B, etc.) according to specific knapping strategies and planned manufacturing schemes, with Type A cores being the most characteristic. The tendency towards systematic knapping is indicated in the lithic industry of the Laonainaimiao site.

    The excavation of the Xigouwan Paleolithic Locality 1 in Huailai Basin
    XUE Feng, XIAO Yuni, LENG Yuting, LI Dingyuan, LI Yanhao, NIU Dongwei
    2019, 38(02):  212-222.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2018.0032
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    The Xigouwan Paleolithic Locality 1(XGW1) is situated in Zhuwoyuan village, Guanting town, Huailai county of Hebei Province. The Paleolithic remains are mainly buried in the second terrace of the right bank of the Yongding River. This Paleolithic locality was excavated from August to September, 2015. The excavation exposed an area of 27 m2, and 232 stone artifacts and 19 mammalian fossils were unearthed. Most mammalian fossils consist of burned bones that cannot be identified because of their small size. Although there was no hearth found, many charcoal chips and burned bones unearthed still indicate the use of fire.The lithic assemblage of XGW1 includes cores (n=8; 3.4%), flakes (n=141; 60.8%), chunks (n=68; 29.3%), a hammerstone (n=1; 0.4%) and pebbles (n=14; 6.1%), but there were no retouched pieces found. The general features of these artifacts can be summarized as follows:a) Raw materials for stone knapping are mainly trachyte, accounting for 97.8%, and there is only a small amount of trachyandensite and andesite. Comparative study shows that the local raw materials should have been exploited.b) On the whole, most stone artifacts are small in size, and the micro and medium-sized pieces only account for a certain amount, and large specimens are very few.c) The principle flaking technique was direct hard hammer percussion. Although there are only 8 cores, the overall reduction of these cores is relatively high according to the number of platforms and flaked surfaces, the proportion of remaining cortex, and the platform angles. Most complete flakes were produced from non-cortical platforms, and the relatively high percentage (60%) of type III and VI flakes indicates that many whole flakes represent continuous flaking of the core.The typological and technological characteristics of stone artifacts show that they belong to a flake tool technological system. It can be inferred from the excavation and the analysis of the stone assemblage that XGW1 is most likely a short-term factory site. The AMS Carbon-14 dating results show that XGW1 can be dated to the late Paleolithic (Cal 41997-41186 BP).Located in the northeast of the Nihewan basin, the Huailai basin is an important area and channel for human migration and technological communication during the Pleistocene. However, for a long time, only a few scholars have organized for several Paleolithic archaeological surveys in Huailai basin. Fewer archaeological excavations have been conducted, and so far there have been no related archaeological excavation reports published. The Xigouwan Paleolithic locality 1 is not only an important part of the “Grand Nihewan” archaeology, but the report on its excavation also provides valuable information for the study on technological development and communication, human migration and adaptation in the Yongding river drainage area.

    A preliminary report on the Paleolithic survey in Shuiyangjiang River system, Anhui Province in 2017
    DONG Zhe, PEI Shuwen, YUAN Sifang
    2019, 38(02):  223-231.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2019.0001
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    This report presents the preliminary results of a Paleolithic survey in the Shuiyangjiang River system, Anhui Province. The investigation was conducted by the Institute of Archaeology and Cultural Relics of Anhui Province and the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences. A total of 15 new localities was discovered and confirmed, mainly buried in the 2nd and 3rd terraces of Shuiyangjiang River and its branches. Typologically, these lithic artifacts include Pounded Pieces (stone hammer and anvil), Flaked Pieces (casual cores, discoids, polyhedrons, heavy-duty scrapers, core-scrapers, unifacial or bifacial choppers and point), and Detached Pieces(flakes, bipolar products, and chips etc). The raw materials used for making these lithic artifacts are mainly quartzite, which are available as pebbles in nearby river gravels. Almost all of the lithic artifacts made in quartzite are heavily abraded and weathered, which indicates that these sites are formed by river flow. According to geomorphological and stratigraphic comparisons, these newly discovered localities may be dated to the Middle Pleistocene. Only one locality named Wuci may belong to the Late Pleistocene. The absolute age of these localities will be obtained in future with the OSL dating method. It should be noted that several unifacial handaxes and picks imply that Mode 2 technology most probably existed in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River system, which is significant for studying early human dispersal and technological development in China.

    Taphonomic observation of faunal remains from the Gezishan Locality 10 in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region
    ZHANG Shuangquan, PENG Fei, ZHANG Yue, GUO Jialong, WANG Huimin, HUANG Chao, DAI Jingwen, ZHANG Yuzhe, GAO Xing
    2019, 38(02):  232-244.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2019.0019
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    Located in the foothills of Helan Mountain, roughly 20 km to the northwest of Qingtongxia City, locality 10(QG10) of the Gezishan site was systematically excavated in 2014-2017. Along with thousands of lithic tools of microblade technology and dozens of perforated beads and bone artifacts, a large number of faunal remains was recovered from the site. Based on preliminary observations of taphonomic features of the animal bones identifiable to a specific taxon and/or skeletal element from the site, it could be argued that humans are the main agent responsible for the accumulation and modification of the faunal remains at QG10, and they procured the main prey animals through active hunting rather than aggressive scavenging. In addition, hunter-gatherers transported complete carcasses to the site to be processed, butchering the middle/large-sized animals and breaking open their bones mainly for nutritional purposes. However, it seems clear that in addition to their nutritional value, small animals at the site were probably exploited to manufacture bone artifacts as well.

    Observations and discussions of arachnoid granulation pits on the ancient human skeletons from Shandong Province
    ZHANG Xiaowen, GUO Junfeng, WANG Zimeng, HAO Daohua, ZHAO Yongsheng, ZHU Chao, CHEN Xuexiang, ZENG Wen
    2019, 38(02):  245-253.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2018.0027
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    Arachnoid granulations, which are formed by arachnoid villus, can cause localized surface impressions in skeletal material, specifically dissolution-like small pits that are often misidentified as pathological lesions. In this paper, 114 human skeletal specimens unearthed from six sites, including Ji’nan Da Xinzhuang, Liu Jiazhuang and Qufu Olympic Sports Center were examined. The results of this research are as follows. 1) There is a high incidence of arachnoid granulation pits from ancient times to the present with no obvious difference between the sexes. 2) The maximum mean diameter of arachnoid membrane depressions is roughly 1-6mm with a significant difference between individuals increasing with age. 3) Locations of Pacchionian pits are most common in the parietal and frontal bones, with rare frequency in the occipital. Locations may differ between age groups. In conclusion, these dissolution-like small pits formed by arachnoid granulations, are easily confused with diseases characterized by bone erosion, such as intracranial infection, diploe of skull epidermoid cyst, eosinophilic granuloma and meningioma, and therefore osteologists should pay attention to their characteristics.

    A comparison between cranial measurements using three-dimensional laser scanning technology and manual measurements
    HUI Jiaming, HE Letian, WANG Minghui
    2019, 38(02):  254-264.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2019.0009
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    Compared with traditional manual measurements, three-dimensional laser scanning technology is considered a method with better performance in terms of convenience and efficiency. Although such technology is being utilized in physical anthropology and paleoanthropology in recent years, some questions have emerged. For instance, whether 3D virtual images are acceptable and the measurement values based on them can be compatible with the manual ones. Here, to compare the differences between two measurement systems, we tried to measure skulls by both methods. The results show that landmarks digitized from the 3D virtual image and real skulls overlap basically. Specifically, those landmarks with typical morphology features usually show better goodness of fit, while other landmarks set by two methods in diverse ways tend to separate slightly in comparison. As for the measurement values, most of data generated by traditional manual methods are compatible with those from the 3D virtual image. Although several measurement values show significant differences when undergoing a paired t-test, such differences may have limited practical implications. Besides, the main source of such differences could be the method to set landmarks and the goodness of fit of those landmarks, while other factors like the performance of equipment, the reflectivity of skulls` surface, and the accuracy of alignment of 3D images acquired from scanning cannot be ignored.

    Skull sex identification using improved convolution neural network and least squares method
    YANG Wen, LIU Xiaoning, LIU Xiongle, ZHU Lipin
    2019, 38(02):  265-275.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2018.0030
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    Skull sex identification has significant research and applied value in forensic anthropology and skull reconstruction. The traditional skull sex determination methods need expert participation and to some extent, is not objective, because computer-aided methods require to marking landmarks the feature points manually. We present a novel sex determination method based on improved Convolution Neural Network and Least Square. Firstly, obtain multi-angle skull images of three-dimensional skull model, and calculate the probability of each image belongs to male or female. Secondly, the weight of each image is calculated using the Least Squares method based on the probability mean. Lastly, the sex determination function is constructed by using the optimal parameters obtained through the above steps. This method does not need to mark the feature points or do the measurement. Experiments show that the proposed method can get quite a reliable performance with an accuracy of 94.4% for the the complete skull and 87.5% for the incomplete skull.

    Physical characteristics of the Lingao people
    YU Keli, REN Jiayi, LI Yonglan, ZHENG Lianbin
    2019, 38(02):  276-284.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2017.0016
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    This investigation was carried out in accordance with the methods from Martin’s Anthropometric Methods. For this work, 71 body mass indices of 417 Lingao adults (211 male, 206 female) in Hainan Provincewere investigated, 18 body mass indices were calculated, and the Lingao physical characteristics were compared to ethnic data. The results are as follows.The head-facial characteristics of the Lingao were brachycephaly, hypsicephalic, metriocephalic, euryprosopy, and mesorrhiny. The body characteristics of the Lingaoshowed medium stature, mesatiskelic, medium chest circumference, broad shoulder breadth, medium distance between iliac crests, and a long trunk. Compared with other ethnic groups in Hainan, the head, face and facial features of the Lingao were wider, the height of face and nose were smaller, and stature was wide and high. Cluster analysis showed that the physical characteristics of Lingao were close to Han in other areas and North Asian ethnic groups.

    Development of subcutaneous fat in the Chinese Han people
    BAO Jinping, ZHENG Lianbin, XI Huanjiu, LI Yonglan
    2019, 38(02):  285-291.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2017.0046
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    Currently, there is no comprehensive study of the skin-fold thickness of Han nationality adults in various regions of China. From 2009 to 2013, we measured skin-fold thicknesses of face, biceps, triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, calfand calculated fat% of 23928 Han adults(13221 males, 13707 females) in Chinese twenty-twoprovinces. Using u-test to compare the city and the countryside inskin-fold thickness and analysing on correlation analysis of the six items of skin-fold thickness with latitude, longitude and age. The study found that on the whole, with the latitude reducing(from North to South), longitude increasing(from West to East) and age increasing, Han male skin-fold thickness increases and subcutaneous fat is thickened. With the increase of the latitude(from South to North) and the growth of the age, Han female skin-fold thickness increases, subcutaneous fat is thickened and PBF increases. The value of skin-fold thickness in urban Han was higher than that in rural Han. Han female skin-fold thickness values of subscapular and calf in urban are close to those in rural, the remaining four skin-fold thickness values in urban are greater than those in rural(P<0.01). Urban male PBF value is greater than the rural male, contrary to female. Among urban male, female and rural male, female, the skin-fold thickness of subscapular is the thickest, suprailiac is the second thickest, and the thinnest is biceps.

    Genetic Polymorphism of 13 RM Y-STR Loci in Shandong Population
    CHEN Yuling, LI Min, ZHAO Zhenmin, Li Yanan, BAO Yun, ZHU Ruxin, SHENG Xiang, WANG Yali, MA Xingyuan
    2019, 38(02):  292-303.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2017.0073
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    To verify the allele frequency and the haplotype diversity of the 13 rapidly mutating (RM) Y-STRs in Shandong province, Chinese Han population, we collected 154 unrelated male blood samples on FTA cards, and amplified the 13 RM Y-STRs with multiple PCR and tested the genotype using 3130XL (ABI) Genetic Analyzer. Among 13 RM Y-STRs, we observed a total of 331 alleles, and the values of gene diversity for each STR ranged from 0.7643 (DYS576) ~ 0.9946 (DYF399S1abc). Altogether 154 different haplotypes were identified from 154 unrelated male individuals and the haplotype diversity reached 1. We make a Conclusion that 13 RM Y-STRs show strong discrimination power and great application value for forensic in Shandong Han population.

    Reconstructing the genetic stemma of Sima Guang family
    DU Panxin, WEN Shaoqing, WANG Lingxiang, WEI Lanhai, MENG Hailiang, XIONG Jianxue, BAO Ruoyu, HAN Sheng, LI Hui
    2019, 38(02):  304-316.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2017.0081
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    Genetic family trees, especially those of celebrities, have become the research focuses of genetic genealogy in recent years. Among them, the history of Sima Guang’s family tree has lasted for a thousand years with full records, which provides a good case for cross-disciplinary studies. In this study, eleven clans claiming to be descendants of Sima Guang were genotyped for 17 Y chromosomal short tandem repeats (STRs). The results indicated that five clans of them showed very close (the maximum number of mutation steps was four) relationships on their STR hyplotypes. Further tests of single nucleotide polymorphisms(SNPs) showed that they all belonged to a downstream haplogroup O1a1a1a1a1a-F492+,F656-. So, we can infer Sima Guang’s paternal lineage was most likely to be that haplogroup. Furthermore, a genealogical tree based on stemmata from these clans was constructed. Then, in order to verify the authenticity of the tree, we calculated the most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) of these clans hierarchically using BATWING method. And we found the time nodes recorded in the tree were in accordance with the TMRCA. This study offered a successful case of using paternal lineage to collate and reconstruct family pedigree. In addition, this investigation will facilitate studies on Sima Qian and the imperial house of the Western Jin Dynasty