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    15 June 2023, Volume 42 Issue 03
    Research Articles
    An experimental study of the flaking-by-pressing technology of wedge-shaped microcores
    TONG Guang, LI Feng, GAO Xing
    2023, 42(03):  305-316.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0009
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    Wedge-shaped microblade cores are typical representatives of Upper Paleolithic microlithic assemblages in Northeast Asia. Core reduction technology of these nuclei has been investigated for over a century generating many noteworthy achievements. However, disputes regarding some fundamental aspects of this technology are still under discussion. This paper documents pressure flaking experiments on wedge-shaped microblade cores replicating artifacts discovered in Upper Paleolithic sites in the Nihewan Basin. Experiments were designed to test relationships between technological and morphological variables and microblade morphology. Such variables included the working point of pressure-flaking implements, width of the flaking surface, arris height, and vices or other means of securing nuclei in place. Based on these variables, five groups were compared with one another. Microblade cores in the standard group have a narrower working face and higher arris, and were fixed in a V-shaped device with microblades produced by use of a thin-tipped pressure flaker. Other groups showed differences in one of these variables otherwise keeping consistent with the standard group. For example, microblade cores in the low arris group only made the arris itself lower, while their working face, method of fixing and pressure flaking tool utilized are same as the standard group.
    Conventional linear and geometric morphometric data on microblades were collected to analyze the degree of standardization of microblade morphology among different experimental groups. The main linear measurements were width and thickness of microblades and platform width and thickness. Geometric morphometric analysis was undertaken using Elliptic Fourier Analysis (EFA). All results revealed specific group-level differences regarding shape and standardization of microblades.
    Microblade morphology is affected by several factors such as arris height, working face width, diameter of the pressure-flaker point, the form of vice employed, etc. Regular microblades can be continually produced only by utilizing a higher arris, which is achieved by ensuring the working face of microblade cores is not too wide, otherwise the height of the arris would decrease and interfere with subsequent manufacture of microblades. A thin, pointed pressure-flaking tool makes more effective use of the arris than a thick, pointed tool to remove microblades. Experiments with various means of fixing wedge-shaped microblade cores demonstrates that the core’s bottom edge is primarily employed to stabilize the stone nucleus throughout the process of microblade production. Results of the experiments reported here provide new information on microblade production and sheds light on the dispersal of microblade technology in Northeast Asia.

    Manufacturing technology of adze-shaped stone tools of the Yumin Culture in the border between Hebei and Inner Mongolia
    YE Canyang, CHEN Shengqian, ZHAO Chao, HU Xiaonong, GUO Mingjian, BAO Qingchuan
    2023, 42(03):  317-330.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0020
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    Adze-shaped tools are chipped stone tools that emerged during the late Upper Paleolithic period in North China and continued to be used into the early Neolithic in the northern forest-steppe ecotone area. A significant number of adze-shaped tools have been discovered in both survey collections and excavated sites in the distributional zone (the border between Hebei and Inner Mongolia) of the Yumin Culture (8600-7000 BP cal). This study examines the technical characteristics of these tools through morphological observation, feature measurement, analysis of manufacturing process and reduction sequence, as well as experimental replication to reconstruct the chaîne opératoire. The goal of this research is to reconstruct the production process of adze-shaped tools, investigate their technical design, and explore their cultural adaptation in the Yumin Culture.
    Our analysis reveals that these tools are steep-edged and end- cutting tools that vary in length from 50 to 90 mm, width from 30 to 45 mm, and thickness from 1/2 to 1/4 of the width. They have an end-cutting angle ranging from 55° to 75° and weigh less than 100 g. They could be divided into flat edge types with unifacial flaking and bulge edge types with bifacial flaking, each with different strategies in raw material preparation, shaping technology, and manufacturing processes. The production of these tools had a high degree of flexibility in the chaîne opératoire due to the application of bifacial skills, which reflects a technological adaptation to the risk environment in the Neolithic forest-steppe ecotone area.
    Transition from the Paleolithic to the Neolithic led to the complete replacement of chipped stone tools by polished stone tools as settlement mobility decreased and demand for durable stone tools increased. Adze-shaped tools emerged during this transition, but the process was not linear. In the Yumin Culture, both chipped and ground tools including microlithic tools, were used. The chipped adze-shaped tool technology, along with other coexisting stone tool technologies, reflects a specific adaptation to a semi-mobile lifestyle based on the technological organization and cultural-ecological adaptation theory. This adaptation intensified the utilization of steppe and forest edge resources that maintained a seasonal and mobile way of life. The diversified technological organization strategy of stone tools may also reflect adaptation resilience to resources in this ecotone environment and division of labor within the society.

    Craniofacial morphology of human remains from the Zhanmatun site of the late Yangshao Period
    SUN Lei, LI Yanzhen, WU Zhijiang
    2023, 42(03):  331-341.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0012
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    The Zhanmatun site is located in the southern suburb of Zhengzhou city, Henan Province, Shibalihe town. From 2009 to 2010, the Zhanmatun site was excavated by Henan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology with rich remains of the Qinwangzhai culture (3900 BC~2900 BC) were found in the western area of the site. To analyze the composition of human population of Qinwangzhai culture at the site, 45 relatively complete skulls (25 males, 20 females) were observed and measured. Craniofacial morphology of the skulls was compared with other skull groups of different archaeological cultures in prehistoric age by applying cluster analysis and multidimensional scaling of Euclidean distances. Results show that Zhanmatun craniofacial morphology is closest to skull groups of the Qinwangzhai culture in Zhengzhou, such as the Wanggou and Xishan group, and also has many similarities with the Xixiahou group of Dawenkou culture (4200 BC~2600 BC). All these skull groups in the Qinwangzhai and Dawenkou cultures show occipital deformation and tooth extraction. The Zhanmatun craniofacial morphology group differs greatly from groups in center distribution area of the Yangshao culture (4900BC~2700BC). The central distribution area of Yangshao culture and peripheral remains have different connotations and sources. The Qinwangzhai culture (or Dahe Village culture) belongs to these peripheral remains, mainly distributed in the central area of Henan with Songshan Mountain as its center. This may indicate that different archeological and cultural factors may be the reason for the great difference in skull groups in the two distribution areas. Moreover, it means that in about 3000 BC, the influence and expansion of Dawenkou culture on the Central Plains was not limited to the eastern and southeastern areas of Henan, and the spread of culture and migration of people had already extended to the central area of Henan where the Zhanmatun site is located. There are some differences between males and females in Zhanmatun, with males similar to the Longqiuzhuang group in Jianghuai, and females similar to the Jiangjialiang group in North China. The first reason is that the Dawenkou culture, Longqiuzhuang culture (6600~5000 BP) and Dahe village culture have a common source, namely the Peiligang culture (6200 BC~5500 BC). The second reason is that the ancient North China type represented by Jiangjialiang residents reflects genic and cultural exchanges between the ancient Central Plains type in the late Yangshao period and the original residents of the northern Great Wall area suggesting that the genes of the northern people were also mixed into the Zhanmatun population. On the whole, although craniofacial features of Zhanmatun group are mostly common, there are a few differences, and the population composition is of multi-origin and integration that is consistent with obvious characteristics of the complex and multiple factors of Qinwangzhai culture.

    Phenotypic characteristics of the head and face of Chinese Altaic-speaking peoples
    ZHANG Xianpeng, WEN Youfeng, LI Wenhui, LI Xin, QU Quanying, XU Guochang
    2023, 42(03):  342-358.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0049
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    In this study, we investigated 14 cephalo-facial anthropometric indices of 3622 samples (male 1611, female 2011) in eight different Altaic-speaking populations including the Man, Oroqen, Ewenki, Hezhen, Kirgiz, Tatar, Kazak and Daur, which are from four different provinces and autonomous regions in China. In order to explore population structure and affinity of these populations, this study cited nine published datasets for the Uygur, Uzbek, Salar, Yugur, Mongol, Bonan, Dongxiang, Tu and Xibe to construct a cephalo-facial anthropometric database of Chinese Altaic-speaking populations with 6217 individuals (male 2921, female 3296). Through cluster analysis, we constructed phylogenetic trees for 17 ethnic groups within three language groups in the Altaic language family. Based on cephalo-facial anthropometric values, we found population structures were the same between different genders. There were also similar cephalo-facial phenotypes between different populations of the same language group, and significant admixture between populations from different language groups. Mongolic-speaking populations distributed closely than other Altaic speakers, as these speakers shared similar cephalo-facial characteristics. We also found regional differences in the cephalo-facial characteristics of the Daur and Kirgiz populations. This may be attributed to different population admixture and lifestyles, and it reminded us that similar populations in different regions exhibit different phenotypes. Therefore, we conclude that research of phenotypes should be carried out in different regions. In this study, there were correlations between latitude and bigonial breadth, nose breadth, mouth breadth and ear length, but a correlation was not found between longitude and cephalo-facial indices. This study provides evidence for complex population admixture history of Altaic-speaking populations, and illustrates phylogenetic relationships of different populations based on cephalo-facial criteria. The results of this study show that populations of the same language group may have a common origin, and that there is a complex population exchange and admixture history in Altaic-speaking populations. Due to limited anthropometric indices and sample size, it is still unclear of the exact nature of the population structure, migration and admixture history of Altaic-speaking populations.

    A taphonomic analysis of faunal remains from the Jijiazhuang Paleolithic site in the Yuxian Basin
    DU Yuwei, ZHANG Yue, YE Zhi, PEI Shuwen
    2023, 42(03):  359-372.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0006
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    Yuxian Basin is located in the southeastern part of Nihewan Basin. Characterized by the presence of abundant archaeological materials from the well-preserved fluvio-lacustrine sequence of Middle Pleistocene Paleolithic sites, this basin bears significant implications for the study of human adaptive behaviors in North China. An analysis of the lithics from the Jijiazhuang site(JJZ) has highlighted the technological diversity of the Middle Pleistocene(MP) humans in the basin. However, little is known about human subsistence behaviors here. In this paper we present the results of a zooarchaeological analysis of the faunal remains from JJZ-A, JJZ-B, JJZ-D, and JJZ-E. While the limited number of animal specimens from JJZ-A and JJZ-D offers information of fauna, there can be ambiguities in the taphonomic interpretation; therefore, reconstruction of taphonomy of JJZ-A and JJZ-D is excluded. The research aim is to reconstruct taphonomic history of JJZ-B and JJZ-E and to investigate further potential transport and carcass processing decisions by early humans living at both sites. Our preliminary study shows that Equus sp. was the main animal species with Bovidae, Cervus sp., Rhinocerotidae, and Gazella sp. also represented. There are fundamental differences between JJZ-B and JJZ-E in terms of taphonomy. For example, animal remains at JJZ-E were most probably preserved in secondary context; in contrast, bones from JJZ-B are largely found in primary context, with humans as main agent for the accumulation and modification of this assemblage.
    Construction of body part profiles of the main animal species form JJZ-B shows no trend in selective transport of animal parts at the site. Presence of cut marks indicates a variety of human activities, such as skinning, dismembering, and defleshing; while percussion traces on the bones suggests marrow extraction strategies.
    Being located on a lakeshore, the JJZ-B site was probably an optimal place for human subsistence activities such as procurement, butchering, and marrow-extraction of large-sized herbivores that were attracted to this area by the water and variety of aquatic and terrestrial plants. And yet, the limited number of bones and stone artifacts suggests that the human presence was probably short-lived; and after their departure, carnivores might have ravaged animal parts left behind.

    Excavation / Investigation Reports
    A report of the 2020 excavation of the Shanghu Paleolithic site in Gaoan city, Jiangxi Province
    ZHAO Wenjie, JIA Zhenxiu, LI Sanling, LI Hao
    2023, 42(03):  373-380.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0007
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    The Shanghu Paleolithic site is located in the town of Shanghu, Gaoan city, Jiangxi Province in central South China. The site occurs in red clay soils that were deposited at the top of the third terrace of the Jinjiang River. A total of 3030 stone artifacts have been excavated from Area B of the site. Among them, 1274 were unearthed from Layer 1, 1722 from Layer 2, and only 34 from Layer 3. Layer 1 is disturbed by modern agricultural activities and its age has not been established. The OSL dating of Layer 2 indicates that intensive site occupations began at the early stage of MIS 2 (i.e., approximately 26 kaBP). Layer 3 yielded a few artifacts and its age has not yet been established. The types of stone artifacts include cores, flakes, tools, chunks, debris and unmodified cobbles, and our analysis shows that vein quartz from the nearby river bank was favored for exploitation by humans. In addition, cherts were infrequently used, and non-preferentially given their development of inner fractures that compromised reduction sequences. Various core reduction patterns have been identified including discoidal cores that reflect centripetal flaking, which indicates some degree of organization during reduction sequences. Scrapers are the predominant tool type, with small samples of notches, denticulates, points, awls, etc. Tools are small and light and occur primarily on chunk and flake blanks, along with limited retouching. Overall assemblage dimensions confirm the prevalence of miniaturized lithics, clearly evident in the average length, width and thickness for free-hand percussed flakes (24.6 mm, 18.2 mm, and 8.9 mm), free-hand percussed cores (43.7 mm, 34.8 mm, and 25.5 mm) and tools (29.2 mm, 22.6 mm, and 12.3 mm, respectively). Traditionally, South China lithic assemblages are well-known for their large cobble tools, but there is increasing evidence for small-sized cores and flakes and flake-based tools at sites in different regions across South China. Therefore, the emergence of a small-sized flake tool industry in South China has become a key academic question. Some scholars argue that such an industry may be related to the migration of northern China populations, under relatively dry and cold environmental conditions that prevailed during MIS2. However, recent discoveries in South China of similar yet far older (~100 kaBP) lithic assemblages likely indicate a different scenario, and that this technology was probably locally developed in response to changing climatic conditions. Given its chronology and lithic technology, the Shanghu assemblage therefore provides new data that significantly improve our understanding of the emergence and development of a small flake tool industry in South China.

    A preliminary report of test excavation at the Fengjiapo site, Jixian, Shanxi Province
    SONG Yanhua, SHEN Rumeng
    2023, 42(03):  381-389.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0008
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    The Fengjiapo site (36°14′59.96″N, 110°28′37.15″E; 484.63 m above sea level) is an open-air Paleo-Neolithic site located along the middle Yellow River, about 1500 m west of Fengjiapo village, Jixian County, Shanxi Province, North China. It was salvaged excavated in March 2021. The 3 m2 excavation area features a 0.15 m thick Palaeolithic cultural layer dated 11.5~10.7 kaBP cal, above which is 2.5 m thick Western Zhou Dynasty deposition with pottery shards. Three-dimensional measurements were not recorded during the excavation. A total of 472 Palaeolithic objects, including 342 lithic artifacts(72.46%) and 130 animal bones (27.54%) were densely and irregularly distributed in the very top of the mealy sand layer in Layer 5, but also scattered in layers 4 and 3. The cultural layers featured a “core and flake” industry (recently referred to as “flake and shatter”) along with microblades. Stone raw materials are mainly quartzite(n=210; 61.40%) with some flint (n=86; 25.15%), sandstone (n=33; 9.65%), and quartz (n=13; 3.80%) that were all easily available along the riverside. Lithics consisted cobbles (n=1; 0.29%), cores (n=5; 1.46%), flakes (n=108; 31.58%), chunks (n=127; 37.13%), chips (n=84; 24.56%), microblades (n=4; 1.17%), and tools (n=13; 3.80%), such as a chopping tool, point, end-scraper, drilling tool, and grinding stone, and eight scrapers. Assemblages were dominated by flakes, chunks and chips produced by hard or soft hammer percussion, also including microblade technology, with no evidence for anvil (bipolar) percussion. Several flakes and chunks were used with clear microwear observed along used edges. Usewear analyses showed main functions connected with cutting, scraping and grinding, with further studies planned. Debitage indicated in situ human activities of tool making and using and with many chips, which indicated little transport.
    All animal bones were broken into pieces, with nearly half (57/130) affected by fire, turning black or gray. Two large mammal genera, Cervidae and Bovidae, were identified based on diagnostic teeth. Most bones were covered in calcareous concretion, but parallel and superimposed cutting marks were observed on the surface of four bone fragments. Two bone samples collected from Layer 5 and one from Layer 3 were dated by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry (AMS) at Peking University with radiocarbon dates ca. 11.5~10.7 kaBP cal, just at the beginning of the Holocene when it warmed rapidly.
    The Fengjiapo site is a newly found open air site along the Middle Yellow River during the Palaeo-Neolithc transitional stage. The high amount of debitage, expedient tools, used pieces, and less well-retouched tools indicate it was a temporary camp for tool making, animal cooking, and grinding activities. The clear depositional sequence and dates make the site comparable to those along the Middle Yellow River, and ongoing environmental analysis will help expand our knowledge of human activities from the Palaeolithic to Neolithic.

    A preliminary report of the Shengwangping Paleolithic site in Xicheng Mountain, Shanxi
    LI Sanling, LI Xuedong, GUO Junliang, DU Shuisheng
    2023, 42(03):  390-397.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0013
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    The Shengwangping site is located on the top of Xicheng Mountain, Yangcheng County, Shanxi Province, at 35°34’N, 112°22’E, and 1690 m above sea level. The site was first discovered in 2006, and in later investigations stone artifacts were found on the surface. There is still a lack of information on unearthed layers, specific ages, and technical characteristics and cultural labels of stone artifacts, therefore to determine the relationship between Shengwangping and the Xiachuan culture, we investigated Shengwangping site from September to October 2020. A total of 1717 stone artifacts were obtained, including 11 stone artifacts with microlithic traits from the surface and 1706 when cleaning the profile. The profile was divided into four cultural layers, of which 34 lithics were unearthed in the first layer, 36 in the second, 416 pieces in the third, and 1220 pieces in the fourth layer. Lithic technical analysis shows similar cultural characteristics between the third and fourth layers. Lithic assemblages are mainly small and miniature in size made primarily of chert. Bipolar technology plays an important role in the two layers, and becomes the predominant core reduction pattern in the third layer. It is mostly applied to the development and utilization of cryptocrystalline and small blanks with a relatively higher degree of core reduction. Lithic assemblages of the third and fourth layers include a small flake tool industry with scrapers as the predominant type. Pièces esquillée and spur-like tools were only unearthed in the third layer, not the fourth layer. Tools were retouched by freehand percussion, not pressure. The lithic technology characteristics of the third and fourth layers and the lower cultural layer of the Upper Paleolithic at the Xiachuan site belong to the small flake tool technology. Dating results of a charcoal sample in the middle of the fourth layer is 45590±510 BP cal (IntCal 20, 95.4% probability) indicating that the Shengwangping site may be the earliest Upper Paleolithic site found in the southern Shanxi Province.

    Reviews
    Discovery and research review of knapped lithics of the South Asian subcontinent
    YANG Ziyi, JIN Yingshuai, WANG Shejiang, ZHANG Xiaoling
    2023, 42(03):  398-411.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0019
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    The South Asian subcontinent, located south of the Eurasian continent and adjacent to East Asia, has a close relationship with Southeast Asia and China. It has long been a critical pivot of eastern and western Eurasia playing a unique and irreplaceable role in cultural communication and technology diffusion. In this paper, we clarify the research history, chronology and technology of knapped lithics from the South Asian subcontinent, in order to offer more information for further work.
    Traces of ancient humans first appeared in the Early Paleolithic, and numerous lithics of different technological characteristics have been discovered since 1863, when Foote RB collected the first hand-axe in Madras, southeast India. Due to some historical reasons, however, there are three main problems in Paleolithic research of the South Asian subcontinent. First, only a few sites have been excavated, with most findings on the surface, which has led to controversies such as the identity of the Soan culture and its relationship to the Acheulian. Second, both the lack and uncertainty of dating data makes the chronology somewhat questionable and thus ambiguous for each stage of the Paleolithic. Third, despite the efforts of several generations of scholars, most archaeological reports of the subcontinent are still scarce, and many lack clear photographs or 3D models for researchers who do not have access to these important materials.
    Various lithic technologies are recognized in the South Asian continent. Core-flake technology, including pebble tool and flake tool assemblages from the Early Pleistocene to the Holocene. This is a unique phenomenon because pebble tools such as chopper-chopping tools decrease and finally disappear with the rise of more complicated technologies in most cases. The Acheulian, Mousterian, blade, and geometric microlithic technologies are similar to those in western Eurasian, respectively. Large cutting tools such as hand-axes, cleavers and picks predominate in the Early Pleistocene, whereas geometric microliths are also widely distributed in Terminal Pleistocene and Holocene. Mousterian and blade products are not as common, which might hint at a different role that the subcontinent plays in human dispersal and communication in the early Late Pleistocene. Microblade products, such as minute blades(microblades) and specially prepared microblade cores, might come from East Asia where these products are large in quantity, mature in technique, and clear and complete in a developing sequence.

    Ancient genomes reveal the complex genetic history of Prehistoric Eurasian modern humans
    ZHANG Ming, PING Wanjing, YANG Melinda Anna, FU Qiaomei
    2023, 42(03):  412-421.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0010
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    Significant shifts in human populations occurred several times throughout history, as populations dispersed throughout Eurasia about 50 kaBP. During the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), global temperatures dropped sharply causing environmental deterioration and population turnover in areas. After the LGM, populations increased as the natural environment stabilized and gradually developed into today’s populations. With advancements in ancient DNA extraction and sequencing technology, it is increasingly possible to directly retrieve genome-wide data from prehistoric modern human remains. The rapid emergence of new ancient genomes provides an entirely new direction for studying modern human population structure and evolutionary history. This research on Eurasian populations spanning 45~19 kaBP (pre-LGM) and 19~10 kaBP (post-LGM) summarizes the movement and interaction of prehistoric modern human populations, focusing especially on prehistoric East Eurasia, a region that has been less well-studied genetically. Of at least six distinct populations in Eurasia, three did not contribute substantial ancestry to present-day populations: Ust’-Ishim (≈45 kaBP) from northwestern Siberia; Oase 1 (≈40 kaBP) from Romania; and Zlatý kůň (over 45 kaBP) from Czechia. One population represented by three individuals (4.6~4.3 kaBP, from Bacho Kiro Cave, Bulgaria) seemed to contribute at least a partial genetic component to later some Eurasian populations. One population represented by Tianyuan man (≈40 kaBP, from East Asia) was shown to be more similar to present-day East Asians and Native Americans than to present-day or ancient Europeans. One population represented by Kostenki 14 (≈36 kaBP, from western Siberia) and Goyet Q116-1 (≈35 kaBP, from Belgium) was more closely related to Europeans than to other Eurasians. This work also summarized five representative populations after 40 kaBP and before the end of the LGM. In East Eurasia after the LGM (or since 14 kaBP), population histories played out very differently. For instance, high genetic continuity is observed in the Amur region in the last 14 kaBP, while in the Guangxi region of southern China, an ancient population that lived 10.5 kaBP carried ancestry not represented in any present-day humans. To conclude, comparison of genome-wide ancient DNA from multiple prehistoric humans have illustrated a complex genetic history of prehistoric Eurasian modern humans. In the future, additional ancient genomes will provide more evidence and details to illuminate the complex genetic history of modern humans.

    Diagnostic criteria of ancient ankylosing spondylitis and a research review in China
    WANG Bangyan, WANG Jiucun, WEN Shaoqing
    2023, 42(03):  422-434.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0017
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    Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a rheumatic disease mainly affecting the axial skeleton that is characterized by sacroiliitis in earlier disease stages (a major diagnostic criteria). In the field of paleopathology, inappropriate identification of AS usually results in missed diagnosis or misdiagnosis, and thus we have established new criteria for diagnosing AS in ancient human remains employing advances in clinical medicine and medical imagery. The criteria were as follows: 1) sacroiliitis grade G≥1 (minimum lesion) bilaterally or G≥2 (moderate lesion) unilaterally; 2) without large or deep erosions(d≥1cm) in neither iliac nor sacral side; 3) if the spine is involved, the syndesmophytes are thin and smooth on consecutive vertebrae. We also discussed differential diagnosis with other easily confused diseases, such as psoriatic arthritis, and diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis. As part for this work, we summarized detailed points of skeletal pathological manifestations to be recorded in the diagnostic process.
    Reviewing 30 paleopathological or archaeological studies in China we found that since the Holocene, 128 human skeletons have been identified as AS. However, only 25.8% (n=33) met our new diagnostic criteria after being reanalyzed. The remaining 74.2% of cases were diagnosed with AS based on “spinal fusion” on only two vertebrae or lacking pathological information of the sacroiliac joint, which could not be well distinguished from other diseases. These suspected cases need further investigation.
    Among these 33 confirmed cases, 63.6% (n=21) were males. There were 27 individuals with definite age range of death, mainly middle-aged individuals (n=17). The earliest cases dated back to the Neolithic Age (n=4), then the Xia, Shang and Zhou dynasties (n=5), the Warring States, Qin and Han dynasties (n=13), the Wei, Jin, Southern and Northern dynasties (n=8), the Sui and Song dynasties (n=1), and the Yuan and Qing dynasties (n=2). Almost all cases were located north of the Yangtze River, possibly an influence of bone preservation.
    The aim of this study is to create a process for recording and diagnosing ancient AS more standardized and normalized, leading to more accurate and persuasive identification results. This work established a solid foundation in study of the developmental and evolutionary history of AS. In addition to morphological diagnosis, the HLA-B27 test is another important means to diagnose AS. The advent of ancient DNA techniques has brought forth potential molecular means of diagnosis and investigation of this hereditary disease especially for mutilated skeletal remains.

    Behavioral laterality during the early developmental phase in non-human primates
    FU Weiwei, WANG Xiaowei, YANG Chenxi, WANG Chengliang, HE Shujun, LI Baoguo
    2023, 42(03):  435-444.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0037
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    Infancy is the first phase of ontogenesis and is the important phase that gives close social bonds to their main caregivers (mostly mothers). In humans, research on behavioral laterality during this early developmental phase is of great significance when exploring the formation and mechanism of brain function asymmetry. Because of similar brain asymmetry with humans, non-human primates were studied. In this paper, previous researches on the behavioral laterality during this early phase were reviewed in non-human primates. Lateral behaviors focused in non-human primates’ early development phase mainly related to limb, nipple and head orientation preference. Limb preference was considered the most obvious index in human and non-human primate brain asymmetry, and has been greatly studied among these three behaviors. Maternal crading and infant nipple preference were also investigated in many studies and neonatal rightward supine head orientation preference was believed to predict later right hand use preference in previous studies. Factors that influenced behavioral laterality including familial inheritance, early-stage differential development between the two cerebral hemispheres, early-stage head orientation preference and the behaviors of main caregivers were discussed. Regarding familial inheritance, both the recessive X-linked theory and the right-shift theory were debated for humans, but no studies reported for non-human primates. In terms of behaviors of the main caregivers, the Valence hypothesis and Right-Hemisphere hypothesis considered that the caregivers’ hemispheres played different roles on regulating different of emotions. The Maternal Handedness hypothesis and Maternal Heartbeat hypothesis were also discussed. We found that selections of individuals, species and behavioral actions were significant problems that stopped any direct comparison among different researches in non-human primates. Therefore, it is recommended that one system investigation on behavioral literalities should be carried out in one species. Comparing results between humans and non-human primates can help us to explain deeply and clearly their differences in behavioral laterality, and provide references for subsequent researches on behavioral laterality during the early development phase in non-human primates and the origin and evolution of human hemispheric specialization.