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    15 December 2023, Volume 42 Issue 06
    Invited Papers
    Philosophical issues in the study of human origins
    Ni Xijun
    2023, 42(06):  709-720.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0072
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    The question of human origins is one of the ultimate questions of human existence, and the study of human origins touches on many philosophical issues. Based on recent advances in paleoanthropology and biology, this paper briefly reviews the history of human origins and evolution, and discusses philosophical issues such as the nature of being, the purpose and meaning of human existence, divine creation and evolution, the driving force of human origins and evolution, the nature and role of labor, and contingency and necessity. Counting from the origin of primates, human evolution has a history of at least 56 million years, or 7-8 million years if we count from the human-ape divergence in the sense of evolutionary biology. As a class of biological organisms and the bearer of the subjective world, the nature of being has always been a very complex subject, and it is even impossible for most people to have a recognized answer. From a biological point of view, human existence is essentially the existence of nature. Human beings are a part of the nature and greatly influence the existence of the nature. The characteristics of human beings that distinguish them from primates are the essential characteristics of human beings in the biological sense. In the study of human origins, the question of the nature of being should be examined from different angles of the various sub-disciplines of biology. The purpose and meaning of human existence at the philosophical level are not scientific questions, and the test standards of scientific research can not be applied to it. If human existence has a purpose and meaning, then that purpose and meaning is “existence”. Although traditional creationism is no longer a major part of the human knowledge system, the ideas represented by intelligent design still attempt to answer the questions of whether or not supernatural forces and intelligent things exist, and why they exist. As a living creature, the origin and development of human beings are not fundamentally different from those of other living creatures, and the driving force of human evolution is the result of a combination of intrinsic genetic factors and extrinsic environmental factors. There have been heated discussions about the role of “labor” in the origin and evolution of human beings, but from the empirical evidence of modern paleontology, archaeology, zoology, behavior, ecology, and other disciplines, it is impossible to give an accurate definition of “labor”. It can be argued that human labor itself is a state of behavior exhibited by humans in the process of survival and reproduction. The accumulation of contingent events is recorded, that is, the process of obtaining a quantitative change, and when the quantitative change accumulates to a level where order and hierarchy can be recognized, the change can be defined as qualitative change. Qualitative change in human evolution also occurs when the accumulation of countless contingent changes reaches a definable level. Self-awareness and thinking are not unique to humans. The development of complex systems in the universe with the ability to think is a necessity of material development, but the exact form in which it appears in things is controlled by chance.

    Research Articles
    Trauma on the supraorbital torus of frontal bone of the Fifth Homo erecuts skull from the Zhoukoudian site
    CHEN Yiying, WU Xiujie
    2023, 42(06):  721-732.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0046
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    Traumas on the skulls of ancient human fossils were observed very early, which can be dated back to a hundred years ago, and have been investigated since then. It not only demonstrates health and life situation of Homos, but also reveals the interaction between humans and animals, as well as that among humans, for instance, potential violent conflicts. As a result, it is meaningful to study the potential traumas on Homo fossils. Homo erectus fossils excavated at the Zhoukoudian (ZKD) site in 1920s-1930s had received worldwide attention for nearly a century, being one of the most significant comparative materials for exploring human evolution. While most researchers concentrated on the morphological characteristics and features, or evolutionary status of ZKD Homo erectus, few paid attentions to the superficial traits on the vaults, except for Weidenreich. In his monograph, The Skull of Sinanthropus Pekinensis: A Comparative Study on a Primitive Hominid Skull, he claimed to have found multiple signs of interpersonal violence on many vaults of ZKD Homo erectus, including ZKD-5, ZKD-10, ZKD-11 & ZKD-12, and maybe there is cannibalism in this group of humans. However, it is difficult to confirm his opinion and lucubrate it since the original fossils were lost during the World War II. Subsequently, Boaz et al. claimed to have found carnivorous bite marks on the orbital of ZKD-5, and speculated that this individual might have died from predation by large predators like Hyena. In this article, we used the frontal-parietal fragment of the only preserved fossil of Zhoukoudian Homo erectus ZKD-5 unearthed in 1966, aging approximately from 0.3 to 0.5 MaBP, as material. The original fossil is now curated in the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology (IVPP), Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing. Gross observation, cytopethoscopy and high-precision CT technique were used to observe and identify surface traits and internal anatomical structures of the specimen. Our study found traumatic injuries in addition to carnivorous bite marks reported previously on the orbital region of ZKD-5 frontal-parietal bone, positioned on the anterior and superior portion of the right supraorbital torus, with healing sighs observed. It is highly possible that they could be non-fatal blunt force traumas caused by interpersonal violence, but the possibility of accidental fall or bump cannot be ruled out. The trauma of ZKD-5 is a new discovery of skull trauma of Middle Pleistocene hominid in East Asia after Nanjing/Hulu Cave 1, Maba 1 and Hexian, adding a new case to the record of Middle Pleistocene hominid trauma worldwidely.

    Types and characteristics of atlas bridge of the macaques from Taihang Mountains
    ZHAO Xiaojin, GUO Mengdan, ZHANG Mengqi, LU Xuehan
    2023, 42(06):  733-741.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0058
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    There may be three kinds of bone bridges on the vertebral artery sulcus of Macaca mulatta in Taihang Mountains, which are ventral bridge, lateral bridge and dorsal bridge. This paper explores their distribution characteristics. It is helpful for us to speculate on evolutionary trends in primates. It also has important clinical significance for people to understand the variations observed in the human atlas. It focuses on observing those non-measured and measured characteristics of the atlas bridge of Macaca mulatta in Taihang Mountains, and count its lateral differences, gender differences and population differences. Based on such research significance and research focus, this paper selects a total of 57 specimens (adult bone specimens) (male 17, female 40) of the atlas bridge of Macaca mulatta. For each atlas specimen, the width of three possible atlas bridges located on the vertebral artery sulcus is measured and analyzed. Firstly, observe and describe its morphology, and accurately observe and count the bridge widths of the atlas ventral bridge, lateral bridge and dorsal bridge; Then, SPSS statistical software was used to process the previously obtained measurement data and observe the occurrence rate, morphological characteristics, and combination types of the atlas bridge; Finally, further explore the possible influencing factors that may occur during the evolutionary process of the atlas bridge in primates. The statistical results show that the variability of the atlas bridge in macaques is significantly different (P<0.05), and the ventral and dorsal bridges are constant (100%), while the lateral bridges are basically constant. However, there are also some missing cases (90.3%), indicating that the ventral and dorsal bridges are stable characteristics of Macaca mulatta; The main type of atlas bridge in Macaca mulatta is the primitive type A, which is separated from the main type D of human animals. Based on the above characteristics, we conclude that the three atlas bridges of macaques are a stable trait with a significantly higher incidence than those of apes. In addition, this article categorizes the atlas bridge types of primates, which can provide reference suggestions for researchers to speculate on the corresponding population evolution degree.

    Discovery and preliminary study of the Shanduidong Paleolithic site in Nihewan Basin
    HOU Jiaqi, WANG Fagang
    2023, 42(06):  742-750.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0049
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    The Shanduidong paleolithic site, located at the east of Shandui Village in the south of Datianwa platform on the eastern edge of Nihewan Basin, was discovered by the research team of Hebei Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology in 2014, an excavation was carried out at this site, the area is 8 m2. During which 81 pieces of stone artifacts and 16 pieces of fossils were discovered. Chert is the main raw material of the stone artifacts, probably carried from Zhoujiashan which is four kilometers away from this site. Hammering is the main method for stripping, and there is also a small amount of stone artifacts is geared to bipolar technology. The stone artifacts are mainly in miniature and small size, and we divided them into different types, including stone hammer, cores, flakes, tools, fragments, chunks, and etc. There are a variety of tools in Shanduidong site. Such as scrapers, notches, points, borer, burin, chopper which pertain to the tradition of core-flake technology in northern China. The AMS 14C dating results were 43396~42271 BP cal, 41940~40737 BP cal and 36830~35885 BP cal, which are in the early period of the Upper Paleolithic Age and represent the continuation and development of core-flake technology in Nihewan Basin for millions of years. In the meantime, it provides important materials for exploring the continuation and development of the core-flake technology, the diversity of the stone technology tradition as well as the complexity of the evolution pattern of early modern human beings during the Upper Paleolithic Period in Nihewan Basin even Northern China. The unique natural environment provides a stable and comfortable circumstance for the range of behavioral and adaptive strategies of tool-making and tool-using as well as daily activity adopted by human beings in this region and even Northern China. We should carry through more comprehensive archaeological investigation and excavation in the future.

    A preliminary study of the burins excavated from the Helongdadong site of Jilin Province in 2010
    XU Ting, CHEN Hong, LI Yao
    2023, 42(06):  751-763.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0045
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    The function of the burins, as its name implies, was originally defined by Western scholars as being associated with the proliferation of bone and horn toothwork in Europe during the Late Paleolithic, where it was primarily used to burin bone and horn objects, and where the primary site of use was the chisel-like edge between the small face of the burin fact and the platform. However, with the development of use-wear analysis methods, more and more scholars no longer consider the burin design and utilization process to be so fixed, and demonstrate that burins actually represents a flexible and variable technological system rather than a single artifact type. A total of 42 burins were discovered from the Helongdadong site by archaeological excavation in 2010. These assemblages were divided into burin with beveled edge (Type A) and burin with straight edge (Type B) by the locations of burin facet. This paper reconstructs the conceptual versions and production sequences of two different types of burins through technical analysis, confirming that the burins with beveled edge were definitive tools, while the burins with straight edge show a more complex use purpose and a flexible design logic, exhibiting characteristics of both microblade cores and burins. Use-wear evidence suggests that all types of burin were used at the Helongdadong site, but the chisel-like edge was not the main part of the burins used. Although developed by prehistoric humans, the key technical structure of the ventral prismatic edge and the small facet of the burins has different meanings in different types of specimens: 1) Type A burins, the oblique prismatic edge constitutes the core use unit of the burin; 2) Type B burins, however, the oblique prismatic blade and the small facet of the burin are used both directly and for holding, hafting, chipping of micro-blades, and in some specimens, for recycling of raw materials. These phenomena demonstrate that the burins from the Helongdadong site were in fact a flexible and versatile technical system rather than a single artifact type. Considering the chronological data of the Helongdadong site, this paper suggests the flexibility of technology and utilization of the straight burins could be associated with the mobility of hunter-gatherers during LGM. Not limited to the Helongdadong site or to burins, stone artifacts from many sites should be in a state of flexible use. However, this feature is often overlooked by archaeologists, and many case studies dwell on the ambiguity of artifact types and whether a particular specimen is a tool or a core, not realizing that the ambiguity of type may suggest the flexibility and variety of prehistoric human use processes. This is why a multi-perspective view that combines technology and function is so important. This paper’s multiperspective observation of burins from the Helongdadong site will also provide insights into the flexibility of stone artifact use.

    Research on the health condition and burial style of human bones from the Dashuitian Neolithic site in Chongqing
    TENG Xiaoxiao, DAI Yubiao, YUAN Haibing, BAI Jiujiang
    2023, 42(06):  764-778.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0047
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    The Dashuitian Neolithic site is an important archaeological discovery in the Three Gorges region dating from 6300-5300 years ago. A large number of human bones with rich burial types are rarely found in this region. Based on the study of 248 human bones excavated from the Dashuitian site in 2014, this paper reveals the demographic characteristics, reproductive risk, health condition, nutritional levels, height and burial systems of the Neolithic inhabitants in the Three Gorges area. Furthermore, the subsistence economy, human-environment relationships and the evolutionary characteristics of burial patterns are discussed.

    The number of male is more than female, showing a weak “high sex ratio” phenomenon. The demographic structure of the inhabitants of Dashuitian is more stable than the Daxi site. The living conditions of minors were bad. The mortality rate is very high, especially for infants and young children. Most inhabitants died in middle age. Few people lived to the old age, reflecting the generally low life expectancy of inhabitants. Males have higher mortality rates than females in both middle and prime age, which is related to the heavier manual labor and greater risk of death in productive activities. Males are not found in adolescence, and the female mortality rate is very high during this period. Because women were exposed to greater reproductive risks during pregnancy, childbirth and puerperium.

    The prevalence of dental caries indicates that the survival strategies were dominated by the use of wildlife, especially aquatic organisms. The production economy was transitioning from hunter-gatherer to agricultural. Dry farming was primitive, with poor production techniques and low levels of sophistication. This transitional productive economy had also caused anaemia. Joint diseases mainly involve the knee, elbow, vertebrae and foot joints. The vertebral and elbow joints in male were severely affected. Male played an important role in agricultural production. Simple cutting tools and slash-and-burn farming methods put a heavy load on the joints. In addition, the mountainous environment was an important factor leading to the high incidence of foot arthritis. The fracture rate is very low, reflecting the stability and peace of the society. Traumatic injuries mostly occurred during daily work. Studies on height have shown that male used to have lower levels of development than female. In general, prehistoric inhabitants in the Three Gorges area had certain adaptability to the mountainous environment with dense water network and abundant wild resources. They made full use of the mountainous resources and adopted the survival strategy of fishing and hunting as the mainstay, supplemented by agriculture. However, due to the special geomorphic features and closure, the agricultural production level was very backward, and people were vulnerable to trauma and diseases in their daily life and production. To some extent, they had non-benign interaction with environment.

    In addition, studies on burial styles have shown that people consciously placed the bodies of the dead during burials. Not only did they place the heads mainly toward the east or northeast, but they also bent the lower limbs of the most deceased, and even tied the bodies into the graves with tools such as ropes, vines, and tree bark. The Daxi culture, which is characterized by the flexed burial, had a profound influence on the culture of Central Plains in the past. But at the same time, with the impact of foreign culture, the flexed burial in Daxi culture had undergone a diachronic change from “bending” to “straight”.

    Traumas of human bones from the Yulongwan site in Kaifeng, Henan
    SUN Lei, WAN Junwei, TANG Jing, REN Ting
    2023, 42(06):  779-792.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0063
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    In this paper, human bone remains excavated from the Yulongwanan site, an architectural site of Ming Dynasty, in the southeast Kaifeng City were identified, and the human bone specimens (R2, R3, R5, R6, R11 and R12) with premortem traumas were used as research materials to distinguish the marks of chopping, smashing, cutting and burning on human bones. The marks were measured with a vernier caliper, including maximum length, width and depth. Three traits of type, location and quantity for describing the morphology of the marks were recorded. According to the macroscopic and microscopic criteria of indirect heat exposure at low temperature, the surface morphology of human bones in containers was observed and analyzed respectively by naked eye and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results showed that: 1) R6 (female, 40~45 years old) in an supine extended position, which was shallowly buried in the Ming culture layer, only had multiple chopmarks on the skull, but the postcranial bones were complete, so it is unclear why the skull was chopped; 2) R3 (gender unknown, about 9 years old) lied on its right side with flexed limbs in the silted clay layer; the postcranial bones were complete, so two smashmarks on R3’s skull could have been caused by bricks’ or beams’ hitting when the house collapsed; 3) The human bones in containers (R2, R5, R12) and house (R11) showed signs of violent hacking and mutilation. The micromorphometric analysis of cutting and chopping marks on human bones suggests that these marks occured in slaughtering of fresh bodies. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) images also indicated that R2 and R5 presented the diffusion and degradation of collagen fibrils, smooth and compact surfaces, and closed bone pores. The low temperature burning of R12 made collagen degrade, formed gelatinous mass, and made the pores indistinguishable. Those bones (R2, R5, R12) were significantly different from R11, which had the hierarchical structure, typical of cortical bone morphology. Therefore the human bones in containers were supposed to be heated at a low temperature. The bones of R2, R5, R11 and R12 shared a number of characteristics that had come to be recognized as baseline criteria for identifying cannibalism in the archaeological record: Lack of formal burial, under-representation of bones, extensive perimortem lesions, and burning. These bones can be used as the evidence of cannibalism, which corroborate the human tragedy recorded in historical data from the perspective of bioarchaeology. The human bones unearthed from the Yulongwan Ming Dynasty architecture site may be the most credible evidence of cannibalism, which provide anthropological data for understanding deeply the cannibalism of ancient human and the social history of the Ming Dynasty.

    Head and facial features of populations in different geographical regions of China
    LI Yonglan, YU Huixin, ZHANG Xinghua, YU Keli, BAO Jinping, ZHENG Lianbin
    2023, 42(06):  793-806.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0048
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    A total of 18 head-face parameters of 45254 Chinese adults (19892 males and 25362 females) have been measured in recent years. The data were statistically analyzed by geographical division and principal component analysis was performed. The males of Northeast and North China have longer ears, closer extraocular angle, narrower noses, and wider heads and faces. Southern China population have shorter ears, wider eyes and noses, narrower heads and faces. The females of Northeast and North China have higher and wider faces, larger eye distances and longer ears. The females of South and Southwest China have lower and narrower faces, closer eye distances and shorter ears. Principal component analysis and cluster analysis were conducted on the head-face data of Chinese and foreign populations, and it was found that the head-face characteristics of Chinese were relatively close to those of Caucasian Persians and North American whites, with a large gap between them and African Americans, as well as between them and South Asian population. The physiognomic ear length,interocular breadth, nose breadth, head breadth and morphological facial height of Chinese males are mostly smaller than the four populations of the Negro race, and the morphological facial height of them is mostly smaller than the Persians of the Caucasian race. The nose breadth and mouth breadth of Chinese females are smaller than those of African Americans, and the physiognomic facial height, interocular breadth and face breadth of them are greater than those of North American whites and Iranians. The commonality of head and facial features of geographical regions populations is related to long-term fusion and similar genetic structures among populations, and environmental factors are the important reasons for their differences.

    Excavation / Investigation Reports
    A preliminary report on the survey of Paleolithic sites in Gao’an Basin, Jiangxi Province
    LI Sanling, ZHAO Wenjie, GAO Yu, LI Hao
    2023, 42(06):  807-814.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0065
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    Through the field investigation of Paleolithic sites in the Gao’an Basin, Jiangxi Province, twenty-three Paleolithic sites have been found on the second and third terraces of the Jinjiang river, along with the collection of 96 stone artifacts. The types of stone artifacts include cores (n=9), flakes (n=39), incomplete flakes (n=12), tools (n=31), and chunks (n=5), and all of them were made on vein quartz. Freehand hard hammer percussion was the primary flaking technique, with the supplement of bipolar technique. Scrapers are the predominant tool type (n=28), followed by a small number of denticulates (n=2) and borer (n=1). Most of tools were produced on flakes (61.3%), others were made on chunks (38.7%), with an overall limited degree of retouching. The lithic assemblages are mainly small (75.0%) in size, followed by miniaturized (18.8%) and medium size (6.2%). In particular, the average size for cores is 43.6×32.9×25.1 mm, for complete flakes is 29.1×22.4×9.3 mm, and for tools is 33.1×25.8×13.1 mm. The technological and morphological characteristics of lithic assemblages are similar among different sites, all of which show a consistent small-flake tools industry. In addition, all artifacts were either yielded from the homogenous red clay deposits or discovered on the surface of these deposits. According to the dating results of Shanghu site in the region, it is very likely that the occupation of the Gao’an Basin could be traced back to ca. 26,000 years ago, i.e., the early stage of the Marine Isotope Stage 2 (MIS 2). The discovery of Paleolithic sites in the Gao’an Basin shed important lights on the migration and interaction of populations between northern and southern China, as well as the adaptational strategies of hominins under the extreme climatic events of the MIS 2, especially the Last Glacial Maximum.

    An archaeological investigation of Paleolithic materials in the Fujiang River Basin, Northwest Chongqing
    HE Cunding, ZHANG Jin, GAO Lei, HE Xinyi, LI Dadi
    2023, 42(06):  815-826.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0057
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    The Paleolithic archaeological work in the Fujiang River valley in northwestern Chongqing is almost blank. In the early years, sporadic archaeological surveys and excavations were carried out in Hechuan, with a small number of paleolithic artifacts discovered, making it difficult to fully understand the distribution of paleolithic sites and the technical facets of the lithic industry in this area. On the occasion of the joint archaeological survey of the Fujiang River valley conducted by Sichuan and Chongqing, the Chongqing Cultural Relics and Archaeology Research Institute and School of Culture Heritage of Northwest University collaborated to carry out a special survey of Paleolithic archaeology in the Fujiang River Valley, from March to April 2022. This survey had discovered 46 new Paleolithic sites, densely distributed in the 3-8 terraces on both sides of the main stream of Fujiang River, a total of 833 lithic artifacts were collected. Most of the lithic artifacts came from ground surface, a few were found in the exposed strata.

    After preliminary analysis, we can found out that the raw materials of lithic artifacts were mostly taken from the gravel layer nearby, they were made of a single raw material, with quartzite taking the absolute advantage. Also lithic artifacts revealed various knapping methods, large flakes production technology was extremely mature. There were many types of the artifacts, especially the combination of hand axes, picks, and cleavers-like tools and the productions of large flakes technology were featured. The majority of the tools were made by flakes, their working edges appeared to be retouched by one-side direct hammer percussion, the retouched scars mostly was single layer. The overall size of the lithic artifacts was thick and heavy, the large sizes dominated, with medium and huge sizes also making up a significant fraction of the total, the shape and size of lithic artifacts varied greatly. From a technological and typological perspective, at least three different techniques can be observed from these lithic artifacts, including pebble techniques, flake techniques and Acheulean techniques.

    According to the terrace context, stratigraphic deposit and assemblages, it is inferred that these sites may span a small range of ages, the time of which should be broadly concentrated in the Middle-Late Pleistocene. The new discoveries in the lower Fujiang River contrast with the previously discovered lithic industry in the Three Gorges region, with differences clearly greater than commonalities, technically related but with more regional specificities. The results of this survey indicate that Fujiang River Valley was also an active area of early human migration, dispersal and survival evolution, with a significant influence on the study of the distribution and transmission routes of Acheulean technology.

    Reviews
    Overview and prospects of research on human cranial thickness
    LI Haijun, YANG Xiaoyu, ZHAO Yujie
    2023, 42(06):  827-841.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0068
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    The cranium is the most studied and utilized human skeletal material in physical anthropology. Cranial vault thickness is the distance from the inner surface of the skull to the outside of the skull, and is one of the measured characteristics of the skull. It is of great importance in the study of physical anthropology. At present, the researches on cranial thickness have focused on: age-related and era-related changes, population and gender differences, factors influencing cranial thickness, the effect of skull thickness on the mechanical properties of the skull. The above researches on various aspects of cranial thickness have investigated differences in cranial thickness in different human populations and better understood the factors that contribute to these differences, delving deeper and dispersing the relevant research, and providing a more comprehensive understanding of human cranial variation and evolution.

    In the field of medicine, the study of the distribution characteristics of cranial bone thickness and the differences between sexes, ages, and populations can help to improve the correct rate of clinical diagnosis of brain diseases and the success rate of surgery. In the field of forensic anthropology, the thickness characteristics of even fragmented skulls can still provide important information for identification. In the field of archaeology, the distribution characteristics and abnormal changes of cranial thickness can help analyze the type characteristics of deformed crania, the way of applying force and related tools, and provide a basis for the study of social phenomena, cultural behaviors, social relations and other issues.

    China’s attention to cranial thickness is relatively late, with fewer thematic studies and a lack of more in-depth research. However, the large number of cranial remains unearthed in China, with a large age span and a wide range of distribution, provide great basic conditions for various studies on cranial thickness.

    Overall, this study provides valuable insights into population-specific cranial thickness variations and their potential underlying factors. The findings highlight the complex interplay between genetics, environment, and socio-cultural factors in shaping cranial morphology. Understanding these variations has important implications for forensic anthropology, population genetics, and evolutionary biology. This paper briefly reviews the research on cranial vault thickness variation and the measurement methods of cranial thickness-related parameters by summarizing the research data.

    Upper Paleolithic human dispersals and cultural diffusions in Eastern Eurasia
    KATO Shinji
    2023, 42(06):  842-856.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0012
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    First, trends in the Upper Paleolithic (UP) industries on the eastern China, Korean Peninsula, and Japan Archipelago in Far Eastern Eurasia (FE Eurasia) are outlined. Next, developments in the UP industries in those regions are analyzed from the perspectives of relocation diffusion and expansion diffusion (contact diffusion). As a result, it is possible to gain an understanding of the following events. At the beginning of the UP (before 40 kaBP cal), southern human groups bearing a pebble and flake tool industry moved north and diffused in the southern part of eastern China. In the early stage of the UP (40-28 kaBP cal), regional groups formed, and they contacted each other. As a result, UP techno-cultural elements were diffused between those regional groups. In the late stage of the UP (after 28 kaBP cal), human groups with the microblade industries moved and spread widely in FE Eurasia, and as a result of contact between those groups, microblade industries widely diffused in this area. A glimpse of several entering of western or northern human groups (e.g., the human group with Initial Upper Paleolithic industry) into the FE Eurasia and its neighborhoods were able to catch, all of these, however, proved to be local and temporary ones. From the analysis on Paleolithic industries in this paper, it can be said that the movement of human groups with UP industries as generally consistent with the movements of East Asian ancestral populations that revealed by genomic analysis.