Acta Anthropologica Sinica ›› 2021, Vol. 40 ›› Issue (05): 787-800.doi: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0034

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Morphological analysis of bones on the foot-binding female deformity of Taohuayuan Cemetery of Ming and Qing Dynasties in Ji county, Tianjin

QIU Linhuan(), LI Fajun()   

  1. Department of Anthropology, School of Sociology and Anthropology, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275
  • Received:2019-10-28 Revised:2019-12-25 Online:2021-10-15 Published:2020-09-12
  • Contact: LI Fajun;


The authors studied the foot bone deformation in Taohuayuan Cemetery (14-19 century) of Jixian County in Tianjin. 101female individuals were observed and analyzed. The results show that the homonymous bones of individuals have different shapes and degrees of deformation. It shows that the deformation symmetry in both sides. Tarsals are mainly manifested in the reduction of overall size, and some of them will produce deformation. The shape of metatarsal and proximal phalangeal bone will change dramatically due to the influence of foot binding force, which is mainly manifested as the thin and curved metatarsal and proximal phalangeal bone, the change of articular surface, and the deformation of proximal and distal metatarsal body, upper and lower diameter and transverse diameter of metatarsal body and phalangeal body.In general, metatarsals and phalanges are more deformed than tarsals. The authors summarized the standard of judging whether an individual has foot bound or not, especially point out that it is necessary to observe the morphological changes of talus and calcaneus at the same time. In view of other diseases (such as hyperarched foot, leprosy and rheumatoid arthritis) can also lead to the deformity of foot bone, it is necessary to analyze the cause of formation when diagnose. Foot binding is caused by culture, and this kind of foot bone deformation is different from which caused by pathology. Functional stress analysis can effectively explain the cause and process of foot bone deformation.

Key words: Foot binding, deformation, Taohuayuan Cemetery, Ming and Qing Dynasties

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