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    Stature characteristics of the Chinese Mongolians
    DALAI Wuyun, ZHENG Lianbin, LI Yonglan
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (02): 282-294.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0015
    Abstract3712)   HTML758)    PDF (6668KB)(340)       Save

    The paper is to study the stature of Mongolians in China. The adults stature of 4410 Chinese Mongolians (43% man; 57% women) was measured so as to analyze the stature classification and the variation trend of stature between different age groups and ethnic groups. The stature of Mongolian men is hyper-middle stature, while that of women is middle stature. Among 13 Mongolian ethnic groups, the stature of men in Ejina Torgouts are the tallest but the shortest ones in Yunnan while the stature of women in Ordos are the tallest but the shortest ones in Yunnan. The tall stature of men and women are with the highest occurrence rate, while with the lower occurrence rate of shorter and taller stature. The stature of Chinese Mongolians is close to the stature of other Chinese northern ethnic groups, higher than that of Chinese 7 southern ethnic groups, lower than that of Han nationality in the north, higher than that of Han nationality in the south, and lower than Japanese and Koreans. The stature difference among 13 ethnic groups is statistically important. Mongolians have higher stature than other ethnic groups in China.

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    Paternal genetic structure of Han and Hui male populations in Shandong
    ZHANG Jinke, DONG Wei, TANG Guangfeng, HUANG Xiaoliang, YANG Zhen, WANG Xiaojun, ZHANG Jie, ZHAO Yingjian, ZHU Yiqing, JIANG Li
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (01): 65-72.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0007
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    This study is based on 75 Y-SNPs and 23 Y-STRs to analyze the paternal genetic structure of Shandong Han and Hui males and provides basic data for forensic application and population genetics. Mini-sequencing was used to type 75 Y-SNPs of 187 individuals of Han and 130 individuals of Hui. The PowerPlex®Y23 kit was used to type 23 Y-STRs of all individuals. Allele frequency, haplotype frequency and haplogroup frequency were calculated by direct counting. Gene diversity, haplotype diversity and haplogroup diversity were calculated according to the formula D=n(1-∑pi2)/(n-1). The median-joining networks were constructed using NETWORK 5.0 and NETWORK Publisher. The research results showed that haplogroup O-M175, C-M130, N-M231, Q-M242 were the major haplogroups of the Han population, and haplogroup O-M175, J-M304, R-M207, C-M130, N-M231 were the major haplogroups of Hui population. 187 haplotypes were detected in Han populations based on twenty-three Y-STR loci, and the haplotype diversity was 1.000. And 121 haplotypes were detected in Hui populations, the haplotype diversity was 0.9988. The Networks showed that the individuals of same haplogroup were relatively independently clustered. There were shared haplogroups between Han and Hui populations, as well as some population specific haplogroups. For example, haplogroups J-M304 and R-M207 were prevalent in Hui population, while haplogroup Q-M242 was prevalent in Han population. The major haplogroup of both populations was haplogroup O-M175. Haplogroups J-M304 and R-M207 were distributed at high frequencies in Shandong Hui male population, and haplogroups Q-M242 were distributed at high frequencies in the Shandong Han male population. A certain percentage of unique Y chromosome haplotypes in western Eurasia and the Middle East were retained among the Shandong Hui male population.

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    Canine fossa and evolution of the human mid-facial bones
    Francesc RIBOT Trafí, Mario GARCÍA Bartual, Alfredo José ALTAMIRANO Enciso, Qian WANG
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (02): 193-217.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2020.0016
    Abstract1929)   HTML165)    PDF (83724KB)(702)       Save

    The canine fossa is an important feature in the facial skeleton of many hominins, including modern humans. However, its phylogenetic significance is debated. Some researchers consider it as a plesiomorphic characteristic in a generalized face that, with some exceptions, is found in both extinct and extant great apes and in the hominins. Others consider that the canine fossa is a derived characteristic only found in Homo sapiens and its direct ancestors, and that it is related to an arched zygomatic-alveolar crest (ZAC). However, this relationship is not always fulfilled, and in Homo sapiens, there is a notable variability: An arched ZAC with the presence or absence of a canine fossa, and straight oblique ZAC with presence or absence of a canine fossa. In this sense, we hypothesize that the canine fossa is related to the degree of anterior extension of the maxillary sinus and that the morphology of the ZAC is related to the degree of lateral extension of said sinus. During the hominine evolution, the canine fossa has undergone different transformations, such as the maxillary furrow (Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus), maxillary fossula (P. robustus), and the sulcus maxillaris (Homo ergaster), or has been obliterated (Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus boisei, Kenyanthropus platyops, Homo rudolfensis). In the taxa where it has been obliterated, the mechanism of obliteration is different in the hominins of the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene compared to those of the Middle Pleistocene (Homo heidelbergensis/rhodesiensis, Homo nenaderthalensis). The facial morphology of H. rhodesiensis would exclude it from the line evolving to H. sapiens.

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    Modeling the origin of modern humans in light of new evidence
    NI Xijun
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (04): 576-592.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0028
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    Anatomically modern human (AMH) is a term used for living and fossil humans that have globular skull, short and flat face, gracile skeleton, and a set of other osteological distinctive features different from most of the archaic humans. Researchers, who take Multiregional Evolution model (MEM) as their paradigm, use AMH as a counter part of archaic Homo sapiens, while Recent African Origin (RAO) supporters use the term for all H. sapiens. MEM was derived from continuous evolution ideology. Branching evolution was believed to be negligible during the rise of modern populations. The similarities between different local populations were regarded as the results of convergent evolution. RAO on the other hand suggests that human evolution follows the cladistic form as in the other creatures. AMHs belong to a monophyletic group and have a single origin in Africa. Non-African human populations dispersed out of Africa. Archaic human populations in Europe and Asia were replaced by the anatomically modern human during the dispersal of the latter, and there were very limited genetic exchanges between modern and archaic human populations. Recent advances in ancient DNA and proteomic researches revealed that inter-specific interbreeding did occur among H. sapiens, H. neanderthalensis and the unnamed Denisovan populations. Genomic analyses, however, indicate that regions with a high frequency of Neanderthal derived alleles in modern human genomes are mostly related to deleterious genes. Strong reproductive isolation between modern humans and Neanderthals was also detected. Instead of supporting the multiregional model, the molecular data actually reveals that modern humans, Neanderthals and Denisovans are all belong to their own species at genetic level. Debates over taxonomic assignments of some specific fossils may not be helpful for detecting the evolutionary pattern of Homo in general and the origin of H. sapiens in particular, because most of recent comparisons and analyses are at specimen or population levels, not at species level. Our recent parsimony analyses and Bayesian inferring based on large data matrix revealed that the AMHs formed a monophyletic group. Another monophyletic clade represented by Dali and Harbin skulls is the sister of this group. The divergent time between Neanderthals and AMHs is over 1 million years. This estimation is much older than previous aDNA inferring, but is consistent with the recent results based on genome-wide genealogical analyses. Biogeographic model tests also reveal that a model including multiple multi-directional dispersals among Asia, Europe and Asia statistically fits the phylogenetic tree better than the MEM and RAO.

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    Morphological diversities and evolutionary implications of the late Middle Pleistocene hominins in China
    LIU Wu, WU Xiujie
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (04): 563-575.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0024
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    The hominin fossils have been found in more than 20 late Middle Pleistocene sites in present China. For many years, these fossils have been classified as archaic Homo sapiens, intermediate between Homo erectus and early modern humans, and the ancestors of modern humans in East Asia. However, such an opinion has never been widely accepted in paleoanthropological community. There have been debates on the evolution and taxonomy of late Middle Pleistocene hominins in China and around the world. Since 21st century, some noticeable progresses on the late Middle Pleistocene hominin evolution in China have been achieved. The discoveries and studies on the hominin fossils of Penghu, Xuchang, Hualongdong, Xiahe and Harbin greatly enriched the hominin fossil record in China. Studies on the late Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils in China revealed complicated morphological diversities indicating simply classifying all the hominins of this time period into archaic Homo sapiens cannot accurately reflect the evolutionary patterns of Middle Pleistocene hominins in China. According to the studies of the hominin fossils from Xujiayao, Xuchang, Hualongdong, Xiahe and Harbin, some new opinions on the evolutionary pattern and taxonomy of the late Middle Pleistocene hominins in China have been proposed and triggered different understandings.

    In this study, with analyzing the morphological diversities of late Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils in China, four types of the diversities were identified. Xuchang and Xujiyao are characterized with huge-sized crania and cranial capacity (1800 mL and 1700 mL respectively) with some Neanderthal features. These features occurred together in Xuchang and Xujiayao crania constitute unique morphological combinations which have not been found in all other contemporaneous hominin fossils. The other types of morphological diversities are characterized with 1) dominant common sharing features of late Middle Pleistocene hominins; 2) mainly primitive features; and 3) mainly derived or modern features. These morphological diversities suggest that not all the late Middle Pleistocene hominins in China contributed the formation of modern humans equally. Regarding the opinions that put some of the hominin fossils into different Homo members or taxa, the authors believe that at the present with no fully understanding these morphological diversities, treating the related late Middle Pleistocene hominin fossils in China with combined or mosaic morphological features as populations of unclear taxonomic status is a proper way.

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    History of experiments and debates on the identification of soft-hammer flakes
    CAO Yu, YI Mingjie
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2023, 42 (01): 36-45.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0009
    Abstract795)   HTML35)    PDF (660KB)(249)       Save

    The soft-hammer technique refers to the method that removing flakes by direct percussion using indenters made of soft materials, usually involving wood, bones, antlers or soft stones. The use of soft-hammer technique is beneficial for controlling the morphology of flakes more effectively, which is considered to be an important sign of the progress of ancient human cognitive and technological level. Since the early 20th century, the principle of soft-hammer technique and the characteristics of soft-hammer flakes have been described by scholars during the observation of prehistoric lithic assemblages and knapping experiments. It was generally believed that flakes produced by soft-hammer percussion were usually with special attributes such as diffuse bulb of force and lipping, which were usually regarded as direct evidence. Due to the lack of soft hammer discovery in archaeological sites, these attributes usually act as the only evidence for the existence of soft-hammer technique. But with the development of targeted knapping experiments, the above-mentioned attributes have been proved to be the results of multiple factors during the percussion process, such as properties of raw materials, force angle, edge angle and even the style of different knappers and it is controversial to distinguish soft and hard hammer technique based on the characteristics of flakes. This paper reviews the process of recognizing of soft-hammer technique and the history of systematic experiments. It is suggested that the “attributes of soft-hammer flakes” should not be taken as the only evidence for the existence of soft-hammer technique, but need to take into account various factors involved in the whole percussion process. We call for the establishment of a database containing experimental and archaeological data to provide richer comparative materials for the lithic analysis.

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    Classification and variation of the temporal line of skulls in modern human
    YAN Yi, ZHAO Yuhao, WU Xiujie
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (05): 775-787.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0075
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    The temporal lines are muscle attachment marks bilaterally on the surface of the skull. Their morphological variations are meaningful to study the physical features and masticatory function in human evolution. In order to know the temporal line classifications and variations in modern populations, 278 adult skulls from Asia, Africa and Europe were selected to observe and analyze. Based on the arc trend, line width, development degree, roughness and terminal position, the temporal lines are classified into various types, and their identifications are standardly defined and established. The database of various temporal line types in sides, sexes and regions were obtained, that can be used for additional studies in physical anthropology. The primary results of this study show that: 1) there is no significant differences between left and right skull; 2) there were no significant differences in arc trend types and development degree between male and female, or among different regions; 3) There are sex difference in the width and roughness types, showing males have higher percentages than females; 4) There are spatial significant differences in the width and roughness types: Super-wide striped type was only found in the specimens from Yunnan and northern China. The Europeans have a high proportion of ridged type and rough types. The Africans have a high proportion of ridged type and a low proportion of rough type; 5) The specimens of temporal line ending in the occipital bone are very few; 6) The width on the frontal and parietal bones were significantly correlated with each other, as well as with the temporal line arc type; the development degree types on the frontal and parietal bones were significantly correlated with each other, too.

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    A review of lithic technology and implied human behaviors from some typical Acheulean sites
    LI Hao, LEI Lei, LI Dawei, ZHANG Meng
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (02): 354-369.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0011
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    New research in recent years has obtained a series of achievements on our understanding of technological characteristics of the Acheulean Techno-complex in China. However, few studies in the region have focused on deep-seated issues regarding hominid social behaviors. In this paper, we present a review of social behavioral studies in three well-known Acheulean sites (i.e., Olorgesailie in Kenya, Gesher Benot Ya’aqov in Israel and Boxgrove in England) outside of China. We suggest that the technological strategies or material cultures can be thought as important reflections or expressions of invisible social behaviors, the latter consisting of an essential aspect in understanding the mechanisms and processes of human cultural evolution in the Stone Age. Therefore, in addition to investigating the archaeological records, social behavioral information that implied in these records will also need to be carefully unveiled, through which we can contribute to a better explanation of “the muddle in the middle” in human evolution.

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    A preliminary study on the related problems of syphilis paleopathology
    ZHOU Yawei, GAO Guoshuai
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (01): 157-168.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0070
    Abstract735)   HTML77)    PDF (5863KB)(398)       Save

    In the historical period before the birth of antibiotics, the treponematosis spread to the old and new continents, which is an incurable sexually transmitted disease in humans before immune deficiency syndrome. Treponematosis can be divided into four diseases: syphilis, endemic syphilis, yaws, and pinta. All three diseases except pinta can cause specific infection of bone and eventually cause special changes in bone morphology. Considering that there are no scholars in China to study the bone degeneration caused by syphilis, this paper expounds the identification standard and origin of syphilis by combing the paleopathology research results of syphilis abroad.

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    Phenomenon of mother-infant joint burials from the Jiayi cemetery in Turpan, Xinjiang
    WANG Anqi, ZHANG Wenxin, ZOU Zining, WANG Long, ZHANG Quanchao
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (01): 1-10.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0094
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    The mother-infant relationship has long been considered as an important topic both in the fields of anthropology and psychology. Anthropologically, the nutritional metabolism of the mother and infant during pregnancy is closely related to their long-term health status; while from the psychological perspective, this relationship is important to the formation of consciousness, psychological development, identity of the children, which is also reflected in the social and cultural constitution. Exploring mother-infant nexus of the ancient populations provides an approach to the understanding of the social life and ideology of our past. This paper presents a study of four mother-infant joint burials from the Jiayi Cemetery, a Bronze-Early Iron Age cemetery from Northwest China, using the methods from human osteoarchaeology, archaeothanatology and clinical medicine. Biological data of the human remains, and the distribution of these skeletons were collected and analyzed. Results show that all the adult individuals were females of childbearing age, and the infant individuals were in their perinatal periods. Three infants were put between the arms and bodies of the female individuals, while another fetus (M224:2) was found between the adult’s pelves. These findings indicate that the former mothers and infants died after childbirth, while the latter group seemed to have died together during childbirth. Combining the previous bioarchaeological research, malnutrition and infectious diseases were common among the Jiayi population, which could be an explanation for their high risk of death. These burials also reflect the Jiayi people’s understanding of the bond between mother and child, and their belief in 'soul'. Burying the mother and infant together is a way not only to show the respect for the dead, but also to comfort the living.

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    Primitive agriculture in the Yangshao period revealed by charred plant remains from the Jiazhuang and Hougaolaojia sites in Xiangcheng, Henan province
    CHENG Zhijie, Qi Ming, ZENG Lingyuan, ZHANG Juzhong, YANG Yuzhang, LI Quanli
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (01): 85-95.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0063
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    Eastern Henan area is a core area for prehistoric cultural exchange and integration between the Central Plains and Shandong Peninsula throughout the Neolithic. Due to the lack of archaeobotanical data, it is still not clear for the development progress of prehistoric agricultural in Eastern Henan area. Flotation analysis was conducted on soil samples collected from Jiazhuang and Hougaolaojia site belong to mid-Yangshao era in Xiangcheng city, Henan province. Lots of charred plant remains were recovered. Qualitative analysis indicated that agricultural crops included foxtail millet, broomcorn millet and rice, wild grass seeds included Setaria, Digitaria, Echinochloa, Panicum, Panicoideae, Eleusine indica, Poaceae, Leguminosae, Chenopodiaceae, Portulaca, Galium, Cyperaceae, and edible wild plant included Glycine, Trapa, Euryale ferox, Diospyros, Quercus, Amygdalus. Proportions and ubiquity of charred plant remains from two sites revealed that both agriculture and collection were important for plant food utilization in mid-Yangshao era in eastern Henan area, while agriculture had established a dominant position in subsistence. The most prominent feature of agriculture was mixed farming of rice and millets, and common millet was the main crop. This paper provides important data on agriculture development in eastern Henan area during the Yangshao era, and provides some clues for the spread of mixed farming in eastern central China.

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    The origins and destinations of the Levantine Initial Upper Paleolithic: A view from the Negev Desert, Israel
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2023, 42 (05): 626-637.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0035
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    The Initial Upper Paleolithic (IUP) is a chrono-cultural phase corresponding with the onset of systematic production of pointed blades in various regions in Eurasia. This phenomenon is often conceived to correlate with the MIS 3 modern human expansion. Originally defined after the site Boker Tachtit in the Negev Desert, Israel, the Levantine IUP is composed of two consecutive superimposed lithic industries. The lower, named Emiran, is characterized with bidirectional blade technology, whereas the upper industry with unidirectional blades. Until recently the chronology of Boker Tachtit was insecure but new radiometric ages have shown that the Emiran is contemporaneous with the local Late Mousterian, thus supporting the assumption of this industry being imported. Similar technological features and chronological proximities between Boker Tachtit and assemblages from the Nile Valley and southern Arabia suggest the early Boker Tachtit inhabitants may have originated from these regions. The Emiran industry developed in Boker Tachtit into a later variant, the unidirectional industry, but it also expanded northward to central Europe and north-central Asia. The later variant acted in a similar manner as it developed locally into the early Ahmarian techno-complex but also expanded into the northern Levant and the Balkans. It is proposed the IUP phase featured at least two dispersal events. The first is the expansion from the Nile Valley/Arabia to the Levant from where it expanded rapidly to central Europe and north-central Asia. The second dispersal occurred slightly later and began in the southern Levant from where it spread to the northern Levant and the Balkans.

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    A study of the bone awl from the Ziyang Man site, Sichuan Province
    ZHANG Yue, WU Xiujie, ZHANG Shuangquan
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2023, 42 (01): 1-14.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0002
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    Osseous artifacts manufactured with techniques specifically conceived for such materials, such as cutting, scraping, carving, grinding and polishing, is labeled as formal bone tools and commonly associated with modern human behaviour. Bone awls produced with such techniques are among the most significant components of formal bone tool assemblages uncovered from a large number of the important prehistoric sites in the Old World. In Africa, a bone awl with an age of 98.9±4.5 kaBP was discovered from the Blombos M3 phase; and such implements were also unearthed at a number of sites securely dated to between 75-60 kaBP. In Europe, the earliest age (44-40 kaBP cal) of bone awls which were from the Châtelperronian and the Uluzzian sites in France and Italy, is much younger than that in Africa. In China, the early appearance of bone awls is reported at the Longquan Cave in Henan province and the Ma’anshan Cave in Guizhou province, roughly contemporary to that in Europe.

    The Ziyang Man site in Sichuan Province is well-known for the discovery of an almost complete skull-cap of late Homo sapiens. However, an entirely modified bone awl, the unique osseous artifact from the site has received little attention after its first appearance in academic works in 1952. In this paper, we present a detailed techno-functional analysis of this bone awl.

    By comparing with modern reference collections curated at the IVPP, we conclude this artifact was most probably made from the tibia midshaft of a large-sized deer (most possibly Cervus unicolor), as some anatomical features of this bone element could still be observed on its surface.

    Technological and morphometric analyses show the dorsal aspect of this specimen was unevenly scraped, with certain parts of the original compact bone surface still preserved; the ventral aspect, on the contrary, preserved no original bone surface as its distal and medial portion was leveled off by scraping and the proximal portion with a U-shape section was shaped by the repeated gouging with a lithic scraper.

    Microscopic observation of the bone awl shows that rounding, fine transverse striations and polish are confined mostly within a limited area of both its tips. This is in full agreement with the features of ethnographic and experimental examples of awls used to piece hide and skins, as well as those of archaeological specimens of well-established functions.

    Observation of the specimen under microscope revealed the presence of red residues still adhering to the distal tip of the bone awl. Both the SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive Spectrometer) and LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) analyses of the sampled red residues detect Fe-rich components, and yield spectra with peaks centered on Fe element more intense than the control samples lacking red residues. We thus suggest that the distal tip of the awl might have been stained by ochre powder when it was used for hide or skin piercing.

    Through comparative studies with the alike finds from the archaeological sites of southern China, the regional specificity as well as human behaviors embodied in this artifact were tentatively explored and it seems reasonable to argue that the bone artifact from the Ziyang Man site was an exemplary osseous tool in prehistoric China with signs of multi-functionality and clearly identified ochre residues on its functional unit.

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    The origin, spread, and impact of agriculture
    LI Xiaoqiang
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (06): 1097-1108.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0013
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    The origins of agriculture is one of the most significant events in human prehistory and the foundation of ancient cultures. At 10000 BP, agriculture emerged almost independently in western and eastern Asia and Central America at the same time. Mesopotamia in western Asia was thought to be the origin of wheat, barley and oats, while corn, potato, peanuts, etc. were firstly cultivated in Central America. China was featured by two independent agricultural systems, namely rice in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and millet in the Yellow River Basin. During the process of early crop development, agriculture spread widely from its origin centers to most parts of the world, building an important bridge for cultural exchange and integration in the Eurasia. After Columbus discovered the Americas at the end of the 15th century, the opening of new shipping routes and emergence of numerous trade routes accelerated the spread and integration of crops in the New and Old worlds. The origin of agriculture has changed the ability of human beings to transform or adapt to our environment, and has made an significant impact on human society and the natural environment. Agriculture not only promoted the emergence of a settled lifestyle, but also led to major changes in population structure, division of labor and commodity exchanges. Agriculture improved production efficiency, provided a stable food supply and storage, and increased the intensity and scope of human activities, largely impacting the global ecology and natural environment.

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    Basic physical characteristics of potters indicated by the handprints on surface of tomb bricks from the Eastern Han Dynasty to the Southern Dynasty in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces
    WEI Xuan, YUAN Junjie
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (01): 23-35.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0002
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    Handprint on the surface of tomb brick is a special printed image consciously left by potters when they made and produced bricks, which is a particular cultural phenomenon. Research of modern forensic medicine, dactylography and trace inspection has indicated that the handprint is closely related to the basic physical characteristics of humans. Using the basis methods of these disciplines, we also can deduce the basic physical characteristics of ancient people. By measuring and analyzing the handprints on tomb bricks from the Eastern Han dynasty and the Southern dynasty in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces, we can discuss the sexual, age, handedness, stature, body weight and somatotype of ancient potters. It was indicated that most potters were young and middle-aged men and a few juveniles and females were also present. And most of potters were of medium height and a little short, which is slightly different from modern people in Guangxi and Guangdong provinces. This study provides a new perspective to understand the ancient potters` group structure characteristics and the ancient handicraft industry in Southern China.

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    Physical types and ethnological characteristics of Tibetans
    LI Yonglan, YU Keli, ZHANG Xinghua, BAO Jinping, LI Chong, ZHENG Lianbin
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (04): 698-711.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0020
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    The physique types and ethnological characteristics of Tibetans have always been concerned by academia. According to the statistics of 1530 cases of Weizang Tibetan, Kham Tibetan and Amdo Tibetan measured in 2018, 2019 and 2021, it was found that Tibetan men and women were all super-medium stature, overweight, and all brachycephaly, hypsicephalic, metriocephalic, mesorrhiny, middle trunk, wide chest, wide shoulders, wide pelvis, mesatiskelic, most of them have eyefold of upper eyelid and mongoloid fold. Analysis of the average principal component of 15 Chinese ethnic measurement indicators shows that the location between Tibetans and Han ethnic group of the East Asian is closer than most of North Asian ethnic groups, and the location of Tibetans is closer to most South Asian ethnic groups. The main component analysis chart of East Asian, South Asian, North Asian and Arctic type data in Tibetan data and foreign data shows that Tibetans are the closest to East Asian-type. Research has confirmed that contemporary Tibetans have the characteristics of Mongolian East Asian-type constitution.

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    The study progress of the morphological variation of human orolabial region
    LI Haijun, WENG Minjie, DUAN Wanqi, LIU Liming
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2023, 42 (01): 137-148.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0016
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    The orolabial region is one of the most important anatomical structures of the human face, closely connected to the skin around the oral cavity, and has important physiological functions. The lips protect the oral cavity from the penetration of external substances, and maintain the humidity and temperature inside the oral cavity, and aid to chew. At the same time, the orolabial region is also one of the main parts of cosmetic surgery, and lip wrinkles have an important identification value in forensic physical evidence research. In addition, the orolabial region is one of the main objects of study in the fields of archaeology, anthropology, and medicine. In the field of anthropology, both the skeletal and soft tissue morphology of the orolabial region are important materials for the study of the characteristics of different ethnic groups. In the field of medicine, the study of orolabial morphology can provide a more accurate basis for the treatment of orolabial diseases and the individualization of plastic surgery. With the development of science and technology, research on orolabial morphology in different fields at home and abroad has used a variety of research techniques and methods and involved multiple aspects, forming a diverse range of research results, providing a basis for the establishment of a quantitative database on the orolabial region of the population in the future. Current research on orolabial morphology includes the following aspects: 1) The manifest characteristics of sex differences in orolabial morphological variation, and their association with nasal width; 2) Age differences in morphological variation of the orolabial region, and their age-related sex comparisons; 3) Ethnic differences in morphological variation of the orolabial region; 4) Factors influencing the morphological variation of the orolabial region, including genetics, dietary structure, tooth and jaw morphology, and breathing patterns; 5) Applications related to the study of the morphology of the orolabial region, including medical aspects such as cheilopalatognathus, orthodontics, lip plastic surgery, etc., personal identification through lip prints and lip shapes, and applications in the field of forensic criminal investigation such as reconstruction of the deceased’s appearance. There are relatively few studies on the morphology of the orolabial region in China, especially the lack of more systematic studies on the growth and development of the morphology and variation of the orolabial region. In this paper, we examined the research results on orolabial morphology at home and abroad, sorted out and summarized the research data and conclusions in the related literature, gave a brief overview of the research on orolabial morphology according to certain research directions, and made a brief review and outlook on the research on orolabial growth and development and morphological variation in China.

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    A probe into the southern dispersal route of early modern humans
    LI Hao
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (04): 630-648.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0031
    Abstract652)   HTML128)    PDF (1715KB)(564)       Save

    The southern dispersal route of early modern humans has become a highly discussed topic internationally, primarily because it aids our understanding of modern humans’ migration and adaptations in the southern part of Eurasia, Island Southeast Asia and Oceania. This paper aims to review various aspects of this dispersal, including its timing, possible routes, and current debates.

    Presently, increasing evidence indicates that early modern humans equipped with Middle Paleolithic technologies migrated out of Africa and arrived in the Arabia peninsular and South Asia during MIS 5 stage, and they may also have reached Australia by at least 65 ka. Paleoenvironmental and GIS-based analyses indicate that both coastal and inland routes were likely taken during the dispersal, and current dispersal debates are concerned with establishing the range of its geographic expansion, in addition to assessing how influential it was in facilitating the occupation of early modern humans in different regions.

    After ca. 50 ka, early modern humans on the Southern Dispersal Route begin to show similar behavioral characteristics with contemporaneous modern humans in Africa and in the northern part of Eurasia, such as the use of ochres, personal ornamentation, and cave art. At the same time, these modern humans also developed regional adaptations independently, for instance, the exploitation of rainforest environments and marine resources, the production of water craft, amongst others. Regarding lithic technology, archaeological evidence in South Asia shows the appearance of advanced microlithic technology (microblade, backed tools and etc.) by 50-30 ka, whereas in Southeast Asia and the Oceania, lithic technology trends towards miniaturization, expediency, and an emphasis on micro-flake production. The application of use-wear and residue analyses also indicates that some micro-flakes were used to make organic tools or to form part of composite tools, implying the existence of complex technological behaviors.

    South China is adjacent to Southeast Asia and the Indian Peninsular and therefore can be included in research on the Southern Dispersal Route, from both geographical and environmental perspectives. However, such a study has rarely been done in South China. To explore the emergence and evolution of early modern humans in South China, quantitative and inter-regional technological-based comparisons and analyses are needed on both the Middle Paleolithic assemblages and those micro-flake-based Late Paleolithic assemblages found in South China, along with robust use wear and residue studies.

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    Head facial characteristics of Miao students in Lar Mountain area
    LI Wenqin, QIN Dabao, XIONG Jian, ZHANG Huijuan, HUANG Dayuan
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (05): 862-874.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0062
    Abstract644)   HTML7)    PDF (1220KB)(144)       Save

    Ten items of head facial characteristics of 1896 Miao primary and middle school students(919 males and 977 females)aged 6~16 in Lar mountain area were investigated by anthropometry method, and 13 cephalofacial index values were calculated by formula. The results were as follows: 1) The growth development in head and face of Miao students has following characteristics: The mean value of measuring items increased gradually with age, the mean values of head and face indicators of boys were higher than those of girls in the same age group, and there were significant difference in majority of age groups. 2) Overall, the values of length-breadth index of head, morphological facial index, morphological upper facial index, physiognomic facial index, zygomatic frontal index, physiognomic upper facial index, physiognomic upper facial height index of male students and morphological facial index, morphological upper facial index, physiognomic facial index, zygomatic mandibular index, physiognomic upper facial index of female students increased at first and then decreased with age. 3) The values of vertical cephalo-facial index of male students and length height index of head, breadth height index of head, transverse cephalo-facial index of female students increased gradually with age. 4) There were significant differences between the values of length height index of head, breadth height index of head, transverse frontoparietal index of male students and those of female students in majority of age groups. 5) Head shapes of Miao students of Lar Mountain area were characterized by mesocephaly, hypsicephalic and tapeinocephalic, and their facial types were mainly featured by euryprosopy and hypereuryen. 6) The results of the principal component showed that compared with other ethnic groups, the face type of boy was short and wide, and the head shape was long, while the face type of girl was shorter, and head type was longer and narrower of Miao ethnic group in Lar mountain. 7) The head and facial feature of Miao students in Lar Mountain is close to those of Tujia and Rongshui Miao, far away from Kazak and Han of Xinxiang.

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    Possible rheumatoid arthritis found in a human sacrifice skeleton from the Eastern Zhou tomb of Songzhuang village, Qi county, Henan province
    SUN Lei
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2022, 41 (02): 248-260.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0033
    Abstract638)   HTML78)    PDF (335957KB)(652)       Save

    The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze the evidence for rheumatoid arthritis in a sample of human sacrifice skeleton uncovered from a noble tomb of eastern Zhou period at Qixian Songzhuang cemetery in Henan Province. The human sacrifice is characterized by numerous symmetrical surface erosions in the joints of the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand, hip, knee, ankle, and foot. Radiographs revealed that osteoporosis was evident in the joints with erosions. The possibility of seronegative spondyloarthropathies cannot be completely ruled out due to the lack of preservation of all the vertebrae and both sacroiliac joints. However, by comparing the major differential signs for diagnosing various joint diseases, rheumatoid arthritis is suggested as the most probable cause of this pathology in the human sacrifice skeleton.

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