Table of Content

    15 February 2023, Volume 42 Issue 01
    Research Articles
    A study of the bone awl from the Ziyang Man site, Sichuan Province
    ZHANG Yue, WU Xiujie, ZHANG Shuangquan
    2023, 42(01):  1-14.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2023.0002
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    Osseous artifacts manufactured with techniques specifically conceived for such materials, such as cutting, scraping, carving, grinding and polishing, is labeled as formal bone tools and commonly associated with modern human behaviour. Bone awls produced with such techniques are among the most significant components of formal bone tool assemblages uncovered from a large number of the important prehistoric sites in the Old World. In Africa, a bone awl with an age of 98.9±4.5 kaBP was discovered from the Blombos M3 phase; and such implements were also unearthed at a number of sites securely dated to between 75-60 kaBP. In Europe, the earliest age (44-40 kaBP cal) of bone awls which were from the Châtelperronian and the Uluzzian sites in France and Italy, is much younger than that in Africa. In China, the early appearance of bone awls is reported at the Longquan Cave in Henan province and the Ma’anshan Cave in Guizhou province, roughly contemporary to that in Europe.

    The Ziyang Man site in Sichuan Province is well-known for the discovery of an almost complete skull-cap of late Homo sapiens. However, an entirely modified bone awl, the unique osseous artifact from the site has received little attention after its first appearance in academic works in 1952. In this paper, we present a detailed techno-functional analysis of this bone awl.

    By comparing with modern reference collections curated at the IVPP, we conclude this artifact was most probably made from the tibia midshaft of a large-sized deer (most possibly Cervus unicolor), as some anatomical features of this bone element could still be observed on its surface.

    Technological and morphometric analyses show the dorsal aspect of this specimen was unevenly scraped, with certain parts of the original compact bone surface still preserved; the ventral aspect, on the contrary, preserved no original bone surface as its distal and medial portion was leveled off by scraping and the proximal portion with a U-shape section was shaped by the repeated gouging with a lithic scraper.

    Microscopic observation of the bone awl shows that rounding, fine transverse striations and polish are confined mostly within a limited area of both its tips. This is in full agreement with the features of ethnographic and experimental examples of awls used to piece hide and skins, as well as those of archaeological specimens of well-established functions.

    Observation of the specimen under microscope revealed the presence of red residues still adhering to the distal tip of the bone awl. Both the SEM-EDS (Scanning Electron Microscope-Energy Dispersive Spectrometer) and LIBS (Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy) analyses of the sampled red residues detect Fe-rich components, and yield spectra with peaks centered on Fe element more intense than the control samples lacking red residues. We thus suggest that the distal tip of the awl might have been stained by ochre powder when it was used for hide or skin piercing.

    Through comparative studies with the alike finds from the archaeological sites of southern China, the regional specificity as well as human behaviors embodied in this artifact were tentatively explored and it seems reasonable to argue that the bone artifact from the Ziyang Man site was an exemplary osseous tool in prehistoric China with signs of multi-functionality and clearly identified ochre residues on its functional unit.

    Paleolithic artifacts excavated from the Lyudouliang site at Yangxian County, Shaanxi Province
    BIE Jingjing, XIA Nan, WANG Shejiang, YI Shuangwen, LU Huayu, XIA Wenting, ZHANG Gaike, LI Jiameng
    2023, 42(01):  15-24.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0059
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    Lyudouliang site is located on the fourth terrace of the Jinshui River, a left tributary on the north side of the Hanjiang River in Yangxian County, the Qinling Mountains region, central China. In order to cooperate with the national key construction project “Hanjiang River to Weihe River Water Diversion Project”, a systematic archaeological excavation was carried out from 2014 to 2015. 626 lithic artifacts were yielded within an exposed area of 126 m2, and another 30 lithic artifacts found in the surrounding area of the site. Lithic analysis shows that early hominin used local fluvial cobbles/pebbles for knapping artifacts. Quartz and quartzite were the most frequently used raw materials, followed by siliceous limestone, quartzite sandstone, and granite. The principal flake knapping method is hard hammer percussion. The lithic assemblage consists of hammer stones, cores, flakes, retouched tools, chunks and debris. The retouched tools are comprised of small tools made of flakes and chunks (i.e. scrapers, borer), and heavy-duty tools (i.e. choppers, heavy-duty scrapers). Based on the dating results and stratigraphic correlation with the Jinshuihekou site located at the same terrace, the age of the Lyudouliang site is constrained to the Middle Pleistocene. It reveals that the open-air sites in the Hanzhong Basin show the similar typo- and technol- features of the lithic assemblage. The small tools predominate in the tool assemblage until the middle and late Middle Pleistocene to the early Late Pleistocene.

    Sources of lithic raw materials of the Fangjiagou site in Dengfeng county, Henan Province
    LIN Yi, LIU Tuo, GU Wanfa, WANG Songzhi, WANG Youping
    2023, 42(01):  25-35.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0050
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    The Fangjiagou site, located in the southeast foot of Songshan Mountain and the east of Dengfeng basin, is an open-air Paleolithic site, and yielded abundant lithic artifacts from the main archaeological layer of the site dated to 50-30 ka BP. Its stone industry is characterized by flake tools. Surrounding area of this site presents a number of rock types of varying availability and quality for knapping, which can help to understand why hominins select specific lithic raw materials during MIS3. Here we report the results of investigation of raw material sources at the Fangjiagou site. We identified the lithology of lithic artifacts unearthed from the Fangjiagou site by hand-specimens, and analysed their prototype according to cortex-bearing pieces. The raw materials can be divided to three groups: Vein quartz blocks are dominant in quantity; Pebble/cobble forms including quartz sandstone, quartzite and vein quartz, also account for a certain proportion; In addition, there is a very small amount of flint, which only appears in the form of chips without cortex. We carried out geological survey within a radius of approximately 15 km of the site to identify potential primary and secondary sources for theses raw materials and compare outcrops with archaeological specimens. First, Middle Pleistocene gravel layer is widely distributed on the top of the hills near the site. According to the analysis of the gravel samples from two exposed sections(less than 1 km straight-line distance from the Fangjiagou site), the hominins mainly chose the rock types with relatively good quality from the gravel layer, and probably procure gravels by collecting ones eroded and peeled from stratum. Second, vein quartz are mostly exposed in the Proterozoic stratum at the southeast foot of Songshan Mountain about 7-11 km northwest of the site. The hominins collected vein quartz blocks around primary source areas and brought them back to make tools. We also investigated other rock outcrops in the study area even if they do not or rarely appear in the Fangjiagou site. In fact, there are potentially available tool-stones with higher knapping quality than vein quartz, such as flint outcrops near the Xishi site, and quartzite as vein quartz country rock. These stones are within the exploitation capacity for MIS3 hominins, but until the blade and microblade technology appeared by 26 ka BP in Dengfeng basin, the main raw material had always been vein quartz. This result challenges the explanations that attributing the lack of formalized lithic technology to raw material constraint factors in China.

    History of experiments and debates on the identification of soft-hammer flakes
    CAO Yu, YI Mingjie
    2023, 42(01):  36-45.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0009
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    The soft-hammer technique refers to the method that removing flakes by direct percussion using indenters made of soft materials, usually involving wood, bones, antlers or soft stones. The use of soft-hammer technique is beneficial for controlling the morphology of flakes more effectively, which is considered to be an important sign of the progress of ancient human cognitive and technological level. Since the early 20th century, the principle of soft-hammer technique and the characteristics of soft-hammer flakes have been described by scholars during the observation of prehistoric lithic assemblages and knapping experiments. It was generally believed that flakes produced by soft-hammer percussion were usually with special attributes such as diffuse bulb of force and lipping, which were usually regarded as direct evidence. Due to the lack of soft hammer discovery in archaeological sites, these attributes usually act as the only evidence for the existence of soft-hammer technique. But with the development of targeted knapping experiments, the above-mentioned attributes have been proved to be the results of multiple factors during the percussion process, such as properties of raw materials, force angle, edge angle and even the style of different knappers and it is controversial to distinguish soft and hard hammer technique based on the characteristics of flakes. This paper reviews the process of recognizing of soft-hammer technique and the history of systematic experiments. It is suggested that the “attributes of soft-hammer flakes” should not be taken as the only evidence for the existence of soft-hammer technique, but need to take into account various factors involved in the whole percussion process. We call for the establishment of a database containing experimental and archaeological data to provide richer comparative materials for the lithic analysis.

    A study of the formation process of Jijiazhuang Paleolithic site in Yuxian Basin
    YE Zhi, DU Yuwei, PEI Shuwen, DING Xin, XU Zhe, MA Dongdong
    2023, 42(01):  46-60.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0052
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    Owing to low-energy hydraulic agents and fine-grained sediments, the fluvio-lacustrine basin proves to be ideal depositional system for preserving archaeological remains. The typical fluvio-lacustrine sediments in Nihewan Basin of North China are rich sources of Early to Middle Pleistocene archaeological sites, which offer an important opportunity to investigate human evolution and adaptive behaviors in East Asia. Comparing to the advances on the study of site formation processes of Lower Pleistocene sites have been handled in the basin, site formation focus on the Middle Pleistocene sites are yet to be carried out. In this paper, we present a site formation study of a newly discovered Middle Pleistocene archaeological site named Jijiazhuang site (JJZ) in Yuxian Basin (south part of Nihewan Basin). Two typical localities (JJZ-B and JJZ-E) are selected and geoarchaeological as well as archaeological factors are adopted for the site formation research. Through the analysis of geomorphology and deposits features, archaeological remains in JJZ-B were buried in marsh or swamp environment of lake margin deposits when the Nihewan old lake began retreating, while the archaeological sequence of JJZ-E probably belongs to the sand bar sedimentary face of lake margin environment. Multiple proxies from archaeological materials (artifacts spatial distribution, technological composition, weathering and abrasion condition, orientation as well as inclination) demonstrate that JJZ-B belongs to near primary context, the archaeological remains had been disturbed by low-energy sheet wash across the lake shore setting which provides effective information for exploring hominins technology and adaptive behaviors. Meanwhile, JJZ-E was preserved in secondary context where archaeological remains together with cobbles and pebbles were transported to accumulative area by relative high energetic hydraulic flow of lake wave and sheet wash, so that the locality witnessed low integrity of archaeological materials compared to JJZ-B. This study shows that the Nihewan Basin contains extensive information of archaeological remains of Middle Pleistocene. Formation processes of the different sites are strongly affected by the different settings in the archaeological landscape. Study on the site formation processes of JJZ site indicates that archaeological remains were in relative low density, and the formation processes varied from near primary context to secondary context. In addition, this study bears great significance on the study of the adaptive patterns of different localities of Jijiazhuang site complex by hominins during Middle Pleistocene.

    Formation processes of Layer 6A2 of the Donggutuo site in the Nihewan Basin
    ZHANG Yueshu, LI Feng, CHEN Fuyou, YI Mingjie, GAO Xing
    2023, 42(01):  61-74.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0054
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    The Donggutuo site is one of the key Paleolithic sites located on the eastern edge of the Nihewan Basin, which provides vital information about the technological behaviors of the Early Pleistocene hominins. The sediments of the site are mainly silt, clayey silt, sandy and clay, which are typical fluvio-lacustrine deposits. Some horizontal beddings can be seen clearly. As the lithics were buried in the fluvio-lacustrine deposit, it is indispensable to explore the site formation before interpret archaeological remains, for that the hydrologic forces potentially took part in the accumulation of the archaeological materials. From 2016 to 2020, a new excavation was undertaken by the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology and Hebei Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archeology at Trench 1 area. Through this new excavation, tens of thousands of stone artifacts and a large number of fossils have been unearthed and we have a new understanding of the cultural layer. We identified a new cultural layer based on the former 6A cultural layer, which was defined as 6A2 now. The sediments of layer 6A2 is dominated by sandy gravel and the distribution of the lithics are not uniform. It indicates a high-energy depositional environment. However, the majority unearthed lithics of layer 6A2 do not show the characteristics of being modified by high energy flow or transported over long distances. The evidence between sediments and lithics is conflicting in this layer. This study can help us reveal the formation processes of the Donggutuo site in more detail. The methods of the research can be divided into two categories, the analysis of the lithic and the study of sediments. On the basis of observation of artifacts, we identified some equivocal stone remains (geofacts). In view of this, we designed and implemented a transportation-simulate experiment, it establishes a reference of the morphological modification in a certain context through time. The comparison study between experimental specimens and artifacts from the Donggutuo site will help us to distinguish artifacts from geofacts. In addition, through the study of sedimentary contexts, spatial distributions, debitage size distribution, lithic abrasion and artifacts orientation shows that most of the lithics in layer 6A2 were not transported by high energy water flow, but buried in situ. So we can infer that lithics and the sandy gravel layer may not be formed simultaneous which implies early human occupied the site after the main sedimentation matrix had formed.

    Transition analysis as an age estimation method and its application to the skeletons of Yuejiazhuang cemetery
    LI Nan, SUN Zhanwei, ZHAO Yipeng, HE Jianing, LING Liangyou, CHENG Zhihan, RAN Zhiyu
    2023, 42(01):  75-86.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0058
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    The method to produce accurate and precise age-at-death estimates from skeletal remains is crucial for both forensic and archaeological analyses. Despite decades of efforts, all the currently available aging methods are experience-based and unable to generate satisfactory results. The Transition Analysis (TA) developed by Boldsen and his colleagues is an advanced method of estimating age from skeletons based on Bayesian statistics. It can combine multiple skeletal indicators of age, avoid the effect of age mimicry, and allows the ages of elderly people to be estimated more precisely. Although TA has been well received by foreign researchers, we still knew little about this method and seldom adopted it in China. The Yuejiazhuang cemetery is located in Luochuan, Shaanxi Province, and dated to from the mid-Warring States Period to the unification of the Qin Dynasty. It’s the northernmost large public cemetery of Qin people ever found in the Shaanxi region. Altogether 304 skeletons were recovered during the archaeological excavation in 2020. We used both the TA and the traditional methods to estimate the ages of skeletons excavated from the Yuejiazhuang cemetery and made a comparison of the results. The data showed that both age-at-death distributions and survival processes are remarkably different. The maximum lifespan and the average age of death obtained by the TA method are much higher, thus indicating that more adult individuals could survive into their middle and old age. These two methods generate completely different age structures of death, which will definitely affect our understanding of the past, such as people’s age perception, intergeneration relationships, family size, and social structure. Besides, the target sample’s preservation and age structure also have a great impact on the age differences estimated by the two methods. When the skeletons are poorly preserved or the individuals are relatively young, the age differences between the two methods become smaller. In conclusion, the TA method represents the most recent and significant development in the skeletal age estimation approaches, which standardizes the observation process and quantifies errors. However, TA is not yet perfect and still needs to be modified. All kinds of TA software so far provide only one algorithm and users can’t choose mathematical models according to their requirements. Wide age intervals and systematic age-estimation bias still exist, particularly for individuals in the youngest and oldest portions of adulthood. No human bones from China are included in the reference sample of TA. Therefore, more validation studies using known-age skeletal collections are needed in the future to evaluate TA’s performance on Chinese samples.

    Pathological analysis of a case of human humeral asymmetry in Eastern Zhou Dynasty
    ZHOU Yawei, WANG Hui, DING Sicong, CHEN Bo
    2023, 42(01):  87-97.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0045
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    This study made an pathological analysis of an archaeological case example of human unilateral humeral hypoplasia from the Eastern Zhou Dynasty(770-221 BC) Guanzhuang site, located in Xingyang City, Henan Province, central China. Individual M45, a female (according to the morphology of the os coxa and skull, and long bones) aged approximately 30 years old at her time-of-death, presents severe abnormal morphological changes on the right humerus. From a macro perspective, abnormal shortening, flatter humeral head, higher anatomical neck, and lesser tubercle displaced anterior-distally were observed on the right humerus. Radiographic analysis showed that wider bone marrow cavity diameter and slight osteoporosis in the region of the deltoid tuberosity, and the cancellous bone at the trochanter of the right deltoid is more pronounced than on the left one, showing a honeycomb shape. In addition, bone defect was found at the region of the deltoid tuberosity and also below the anatomical neck. The asymmetric development of upper limb bones, including the humerus, is generally attributed to physiological or pathological induced bone remodeling. Physiological causes include genetic and behavioral factors. The asymmetry caused by physiological genetic factors does not affect the normal development of bone, and the degree of asymmetry is relatively low, in the range of 1% or less. Behavioral factors are mainly related to activities and bone loading patterns, including occupation, habitual activities, etc. The difference between two humerus caused by behavioral factors is reflected in the difference of the cross-section and the strength of the two humerus, most of which are transverse differences. Differential diagnosis was made in this study, including metabolic diseases, endocrine diseases, focal fibrocartilage hypoplasia, metaphyseal cartilage hypoplasia, Kashin Beck disease, osteogenesis imperfecta, humeral shortening and cartilage hypoplasia. According to the analysis, it is more likely that the humeral asymmetry found in M45 has affected the proximal growth centre of the right humerus, possibly linked to childbirth trauma, or the cessation of humeral growth and development caused by trauma to the growth plate in early childhood.

    Oral health of prehistoric inhabitants from the Ganzao site, Guangxi
    CHEN Xiaoying, YOU Haijie, SONG Meiling, GUO Mingxiao, XIAO Yuni, ZENG Wen
    2023, 42(01):  98-109.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0053
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    The Ganzao site, located in Fusui of Guangxi Province, is an important Neolithic shell midden along in the Zuojiang River. A wealth of remains and relics including tombs were found here. A total of 999 permanent teeth belonging to 108 individuals were unearthed in 2014 that were used to assess the oral health status of the site residents in this paper. The results of the statistical analysis shows that: 1) Individual caries rate was 31.88%, with caries rate of teeth at 4.70%. There were 5.28% of caries in the 360 pieces of maxillary teeth, and 4.38% caries in the 639 mandibular teeth. Molars were most susceptible to caries, then premolars. With increasing age, incidence and degree of caries increased. There were no significant differences in the incidence of caries between males and females. Caries rate of the Ganzao site inhabitants was close to that of agricultural populations, but lower than that of people from the Liyudun, Zengpiyan, and Dingsishan sites. All four sites utilize a fishing-gathering economy. In this paper, it is suggested that the higher caries rate of Zengpiyan and Dingsishan site inhabitants may be related to consumption of tubers, and complications from the small sample size of the Liyudun and Zengpiyan sites. 2) The incidence of dental calculus is very high, with an individual incidence rate of 89.86%, which increases with age. Incidence of calculus in lower teeth is higher than in upper. Incidence of buccal to lingual side is roughly comparable. 3) The average wear grade of teeth is 5.07, and the degree of tooth wear gradually deepens with age. Average wear level of teeth in females (considering different teeth positions) is higher than that of males, which may be due to the fact that in this sample females are generally older. Compared to residents with different economies, tooth wear of the Ganzao site inhabitants were more severe, possibly related to the consumption of snails and shellfish with their high sand content.

    Phytolith evidence for the agricultural development during Shuangdun cultural period from the Yuhuicun site, Anhui Province
    GU Chunguang, LUO Wuhong, ZHANG Dong, YANG Yuzhang
    2023, 42(01):  110-121.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0055
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    The Shuangdun Culture Period (7.3-6.8 kaBP) is the characteristic culture with distinctive local traits and some foreign factors in the middle Huai River valley. It is an important medium to understand the relationship of civilizations between the Huai River and the Yellow River and Yangtze River. At present, although some researches on the plant remains of Shuangdun period have been carried out in the middle Huai River valley, there are still lack of consistent views about agricultural development and its influencing factors. The Yuhuicun site, located in Bengbu City, Anhui Province, was excavated by Institute of Archaeological Research of Chinese Academy of Social Sciences during 2017. The typical traits of objects unearthed from this site belong to the Shuangdun culture, Dawenkou culture and Longshan culture, respectively. Thus, it is an ideal site for studying the prehistorical agriculture development of the middle Huai River valley. Previous studies showed that millet remains have been used by Yuhuicun people during Shuangdun culture period. However, there are still no systematic archaeobotany research in the site. In this paper, phytolith analysis was conducted on 44 soil samples of Shuangdun time for investigating the plant remains from the Yuhuicun site, which is focused on the crop phytolith types, the percentage of sensitive phytolith types and fixed phytolith ones, the morphological characteristics of rice bulliform and double-peaked phytoliths. The results indicate that most samples found from the Yuhuicun site are rice phytoliths, while no millet phytoliths were discovered. According to morphological analyses of rice bulliform and double-peaked phytoliths, the proportion of rice bulliform phytoliths which have equal or more than nine shallow fish-scale decorations is 45.8%±3.03%, and that of domesticated rice double-peaked phytoliths is 48.75%±2.7%, and the proportion of japonica-type rice bulliform phytoliths is 70.82%±4.33%. These data indicate that rice remains from the Yuhuicun site were mainly domesticated japonica-type. The above results demonstrates that rice farming at Yuhuicun have inherited the agricultural tradition which had been found since the Shunshanji culture in the middle Huai River valley. Besides, the ratio of sensitive types and fixed ones in the phytolith assemblages from the Yuhuicun site was 0.7±0.2, suggesting that the water environment for rice cultivation at the site belonged to “upland rainfed” type or “lowland rainfed” type. The findings in this research can provide significant evidence for studying the evolution of Neolithic agricultural development patterns, rice cultivation and domestication and human adaptation strategies under the background of prehistoric climate and cultural changes in Central and East China.

    Excavation/Investigation Reports
    A preliminary report on the excavation of Fodongdi site in Gengma, Yunnan Province
    GAO Feng, YANG Shixia, ZHOU Xinying, RUAN Qijun, HUAN Faxiang, HE Linshan, QIU Kaiwei, YANG Bo, WANG Yiren, YANG Qingjiang, WANG Jian, SHEN Hui, ZHAO Keliang, LI Xiaoqiang
    2023, 42(01):  122-128.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0062
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    The Fodongdi site is located at Mengjian village, Gengma County, Lincang City, Yunnan Province. It is situated on the north bank of Nanting River, in a Permian limestone cave with an entrance towards southeast. The site was discovered in 2016~2017, and excavated in 2017~2018 by a joint team of the Yunnan Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics and Archaeology, the Institute of Vertebrate Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, Chinese Academy of Sciences and Lincang Prefecture Administration of Cultural Relics, etc. The excavation exposed an area of 20 m2. A plenty of remains were unearthed, including lithic artifacts, fauna fossils, and flora fossils. Based on the results of primary sedimentary and chronological analysis, the prehistoric cultural layers were dated back to 18,400~14,000 BP, and divided into three phases. As a prehistoric site located in the tropical-subtropical region, the Fodongdi site provide some new data to interpret the adaptation behavior of prehistory humans in a specific ecological context during Late Pleistocene.

    Review and prospective of the experimental study on the simulated flaking of wedge-shaped microblade cores in Northeast Asia
    TONG Guang, LI Feng, GAO Xing
    2023, 42(01):  129-136.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0061
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    There are many microblade assemblages emerged in Northeast Asia during the Upper Paleolithic. Among them, the wedge-shaped microblade cores are noteworthy in terms of their varied forms and extensive distribution throughout Northeast Asia. This kind of core reduction technique has been examined from multiple aspects by scholars using various methods, among which the knapping experiments have played a significant role in such studies, and yielding a wealth of information regarding microblade technology and ancient human behavior. Since 1980s, three knapping techniques, including direct percussion, indirect percussion, and pressing, have been employed by some scholars during the replication experiments for producing microblades from wedge-shaped blanks like those found in Northeast Asia. Moreover, Various methods of securing cores during flaking process have been designed to correspond with knapping techniques. Based upon these knapping experiments, strategies of raw material selection and core preparation have been discussed, and a lot of valuable information and inferences have been generated by these experiments, which are difficult to infer from archaeological data alone. Here, we attempt to provide a comprehensive review of these experimental studies, including aspects of raw material procurement and selection, core preparation, methods of securing cores, and the fabrication of end products. Furtherly, some deficiencies of these experimental studies are summarized and their prospects are also discussed. We hope this review provides some useful information and could inspire further research of microblade technology in Northeast Asia as well as promote more in-depth experimental studies in the future.

    The study progress of the morphological variation of human orolabial region
    LI Haijun, WENG Minjie, DUAN Wanqi, LIU Liming
    2023, 42(01):  137-148.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0016
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    The orolabial region is one of the most important anatomical structures of the human face, closely connected to the skin around the oral cavity, and has important physiological functions. The lips protect the oral cavity from the penetration of external substances, and maintain the humidity and temperature inside the oral cavity, and aid to chew. At the same time, the orolabial region is also one of the main parts of cosmetic surgery, and lip wrinkles have an important identification value in forensic physical evidence research. In addition, the orolabial region is one of the main objects of study in the fields of archaeology, anthropology, and medicine. In the field of anthropology, both the skeletal and soft tissue morphology of the orolabial region are important materials for the study of the characteristics of different ethnic groups. In the field of medicine, the study of orolabial morphology can provide a more accurate basis for the treatment of orolabial diseases and the individualization of plastic surgery. With the development of science and technology, research on orolabial morphology in different fields at home and abroad has used a variety of research techniques and methods and involved multiple aspects, forming a diverse range of research results, providing a basis for the establishment of a quantitative database on the orolabial region of the population in the future. Current research on orolabial morphology includes the following aspects: 1) The manifest characteristics of sex differences in orolabial morphological variation, and their association with nasal width; 2) Age differences in morphological variation of the orolabial region, and their age-related sex comparisons; 3) Ethnic differences in morphological variation of the orolabial region; 4) Factors influencing the morphological variation of the orolabial region, including genetics, dietary structure, tooth and jaw morphology, and breathing patterns; 5) Applications related to the study of the morphology of the orolabial region, including medical aspects such as cheilopalatognathus, orthodontics, lip plastic surgery, etc., personal identification through lip prints and lip shapes, and applications in the field of forensic criminal investigation such as reconstruction of the deceased’s appearance. There are relatively few studies on the morphology of the orolabial region in China, especially the lack of more systematic studies on the growth and development of the morphology and variation of the orolabial region. In this paper, we examined the research results on orolabial morphology at home and abroad, sorted out and summarized the research data and conclusions in the related literature, gave a brief overview of the research on orolabial morphology according to certain research directions, and made a brief review and outlook on the research on orolabial growth and development and morphological variation in China.

    The research process of Chinese anthropometry in the past forty years
    LI Yonglan, YU Huixin, ZHENG Lianbin
    2023, 42(01):  149-160.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2022.0056
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    Since the 1980s, with the continuous promotion and efforts of Wu Rukang, Wu Xinzhi and Xi Huanjiu, Chinese anthropometry has made great strides and developed rapidly. After being silent for many years, Chinese anthropometry work has been vigorously carried out, and gradually formed many core teams on anthropometry research. In the past 40 years, Chinese anthropometry of the Chinese population has experienced the initial stage (1982-1987), the vigorous development stage (1988-1999), a bottleneck period (2000-2008), and the new leap development stage (2009-2022). Chinese physical anthropologists have conducted a large number of anthropometric work on the physical phenotypes of the ethnic groups in China, and have achieved fruitful results. These achievements have laid a solid base for constructing the Chinese population physique characteristics’ database. Among them, relatively fruitful research results have been achieved in the research directions of the head and facial characteristics, physique characteristics, physical type, somatotype, obesity, human body composition and other research directions. Since 2009, the implementation of two projects, namely the Han nationality physical anthropology research and the physical anthropological phenotypic characteristics survey of all ethnic groups in China, have greatly promoted the anthropometry work in China. In recent years, most researchers have gradually put their main works on the comprehensive studies of the entire language family and language branch, instead of taking a single ethnic group as the research object before. At present, there is still a lack of chinese anthropometric research on the Chinese nation as a whole, and there also a lack of comprehensive research on ethnic groups in a geographical scale (such as the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau and the Tibet-Yi Corridor). In the past, researchers paid more attention to the differences between ethnic groups of Chinese anthropometry, intead of sufficiently exploring the commonalities of physical characteristics among ethnic groups. The commonalities of physical characteristics among ethnic groups are important research aspects that need to be paid attention in the future. From now on, Chinese anthropometric workers must continue to carry out the anthropometric work of the Chinese people, to use the big data of physical characteristics to carry out more comprehensive research in various fields of anthropometry. At the same time, Chinese anthropometric workers need to initially establish the Chinese population physique characteristics database, so that the Chinese physique characteristics’ data could be used in all sectors such as the national economy and medical hygiene, and play a greater role in the future.