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    15 April 2022, Volume 41 Issue 02
    Research Articles
    Canine fossa and evolution of the human mid-facial bones
    Francesc RIBOT Trafí, Mario GARCÍA Bartual, Alfredo José ALTAMIRANO Enciso, Qian WANG
    2022, 41(02):  193-217.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2020.0016
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    The canine fossa is an important feature in the facial skeleton of many hominins, including modern humans. However, its phylogenetic significance is debated. Some researchers consider it as a plesiomorphic characteristic in a generalized face that, with some exceptions, is found in both extinct and extant great apes and in the hominins. Others consider that the canine fossa is a derived characteristic only found in Homo sapiens and its direct ancestors, and that it is related to an arched zygomatic-alveolar crest (ZAC). However, this relationship is not always fulfilled, and in Homo sapiens, there is a notable variability: An arched ZAC with the presence or absence of a canine fossa, and straight oblique ZAC with presence or absence of a canine fossa. In this sense, we hypothesize that the canine fossa is related to the degree of anterior extension of the maxillary sinus and that the morphology of the ZAC is related to the degree of lateral extension of said sinus. During the hominine evolution, the canine fossa has undergone different transformations, such as the maxillary furrow (Australopithecus africanus, Paranthropus robustus), maxillary fossula (P. robustus), and the sulcus maxillaris (Homo ergaster), or has been obliterated (Paranthropus aethiopicus, Paranthropus boisei, Kenyanthropus platyops, Homo rudolfensis). In the taxa where it has been obliterated, the mechanism of obliteration is different in the hominins of the Pliocene and Early Pleistocene compared to those of the Middle Pleistocene (Homo heidelbergensis/rhodesiensis, Homo nenaderthalensis). The facial morphology of H. rhodesiensis would exclude it from the line evolving to H. sapiens.

    Dental microwear analysis of human teeth in Shengjindian cemetery, Turpan, Xinjiang
    YANG Shiyu, ZHANG Qun, WANG Long, ZHANG Quanchao
    2022, 41(02):  218-225.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0029
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    In this study, based on the human teeth yielded from Shengjindian cemetery, the buccal surfaces of 13 molars were observed under different magnifications with hyper-filed 3D electron microscope. The statistics and comparative analysis on the scratches and pits of the molar buccal surfaces in terms of the gender and age suggested that the older individuals and male ingested a higher proportion of plant food and female tend to ingested less meat with age increasing. In addition, there was no significant difference in dietary composition between male and female. It could be inferred from the comparative analysis of Lh/Lv among the different populations(Shengjindian people, modern humans and other Chinese ancient populations) and the characteristics of the funerary objects that the main subsistence pattern of the population of Shengjindian was nomadic herding and the animal products was the dominant food in their daily dietary. Meanwhile, there also existed some proportion of agriculture.

    Analysis of dental caries in the Yangshao population at the Qingtai site, Zhengzhou city
    YUAN Haibing, GU Wanfa, WEI Qingli, WU Qian, DING Lanpo, CAO Doudou
    2022, 41(02):  226-237.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0023
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    This paper focuses on the prevalence of dental caries in the Neolithic Yangshao population from the Qingtai site, Zhengzhou city, Henan Province. A total of 1913 teeth and 91 individuals were included in this study. The individual caries rate of Qingtai group is 71.43%, and the caries rate of teeth is 13.38% which rises to 17.03% after correction. Females had a higher caries rate than males, which may be attributed to the physiological changes during pregnancy, food preference and labor division between different sex groups. The caries rate of maxilla is higher than that of mandible; besides, molars and occlusal surfaces were more prone to dental caries than other teeth and locations. Compared with other Neolithic populations in China, Qingtai people presented a relatively higher caries rate. This phenomenon suggests that their diet may contain a large amount of carbohydrates, which can also be associated with the developed millet farming in this region during the Yangshao culture period. In addition, the regional differences of dental caries rate among the Neolithic agricultural populations in the middle and lower reaches of the Yellow River and the Yangtze River may be related to the complexity of the caries etiology and the differences of cultural features as well as lifestyles.

    Biomechanical comparison of the middle femur between the Tuchengzi agricultural people and the Jinggouzi nomadic people from Inner Mongolia
    WEI Pianpian, ZHANG Quanchao
    2022, 41(02):  238-247.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0014
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    The morphological structure of limb bones can reflect important information, i.e. human evolution, adaptive behavior of ancient populations and living environment, and vice versa. Most of these studies are based on “Bone Functional Adaptation” and “Beam Model”. Based on these, physical anthropologists have done a lot of research on femora of ancient populations with different lifestyle. However, there have been no related published studies about the femoral differences between agricultural and nomadic populations. Here, we provided detailed comparative assessment of femora from two archaeological sites, i.e. Tuchengzi and Jinggouzi from Inner Mongolia, with agricultural and nomadic lifestyle separately. Specifically, we analyzed diaphyseal structure of femoral three-dimensional visual digital model using methods of cross-sectional geometry. There was significant difference between Tuchengzi and Jinggouzi population. The mean level of femoral robusticity of Tuchengzi agricultural population was found to be larger than that of Jinggouzi nomadic population. The Jinggouzi female sample was significantly less robust than other groups, which should be correlated with the habitual riding behavior. The soldier status of Tuchengzi male sample may lead to the relatively larger variation range of femoral biomechanical index than that of Jinggouzi. It also indicated that the behavior information reflected by Tuchengzi male did not represent the typical agricultural population, but a mixture activity pattern. In terms of gender division of labor, the habitual riding behavior made the mechanical loading on bilateral femora relatively symmetry and similar cross-sectional shape of femoral midshaft, which led to little gender difference of femoral bilateral asymmetry in Jinggouzi sample. However, the males from nomadic population are involved in hunting behavior, which induces the significantly more robust femora that that of female. Compared to the slender femora of females in nomadic population, females in Tuchengzi sample, as the representative of the typical agricultural population, had almost the same robusticity as males of the same group, meaning that the agricultural females were more active in daily life. This also led to the relatively small gender difference of femoral robusticity within Tuchengzi sample. However, there is distinct difference of cross-sectional shape on femoral midshaft between Tuchengzi males and females, which suggesting that the activity pattern is significantly different between males and females of Tuchengzi sample.

    Possible rheumatoid arthritis found in a human sacrifice skeleton from the Eastern Zhou tomb of Songzhuang village, Qi county, Henan province
    SUN Lei
    2022, 41(02):  248-260.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0033
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    The purpose of this study is to describe and analyze the evidence for rheumatoid arthritis in a sample of human sacrifice skeleton uncovered from a noble tomb of eastern Zhou period at Qixian Songzhuang cemetery in Henan Province. The human sacrifice is characterized by numerous symmetrical surface erosions in the joints of the shoulder, elbow, wrist and hand, hip, knee, ankle, and foot. Radiographs revealed that osteoporosis was evident in the joints with erosions. The possibility of seronegative spondyloarthropathies cannot be completely ruled out due to the lack of preservation of all the vertebrae and both sacroiliac joints. However, by comparing the major differential signs for diagnosing various joint diseases, rheumatoid arthritis is suggested as the most probable cause of this pathology in the human sacrifice skeleton.

    Carbon and nitrogen stable isotope analysis of the human and animal bones from the Haminmangha site
    ZHANG Quanchao, SUN Yuze, HOU Liangliang, JI Ping, ZHU Yonggang
    2022, 41(02):  261-273.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0006
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    The Haminmangha site is located in Kezuozhongqi, Inner Mongolia, China, and belongs to the middle Neolithic culture. Its discovery contributes to the revelation of motivation of Haminmangha culture’s development, and the same goes for the restoration of vicissitude process of prehistorical culture in Horqin sandy land. For this reason, trying to reconstruct the living subsistence economy of these ancient people and make the results helpful to summarize the cultural status is an important part of understanding this site. At present, we already have the related results by using methods such as Archaeobotany, Zooarchaeology and dental microwear analyses. Through them we can be preliminarily showed by the subsistence economy status of ancient people in Haminmangha site. However, limited to the methods themselves, it still can’t be told that how the millet farming, hunting, fishing and gathering share the proportion of subsistence economy in Haminmangha site. Beyond that, we also need to figure out whether the livestock raising exist at that time. In order to explore the explanation of those questions, carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic analysis were performed on 87 human bones and 18 animal bones from Haminmangha site. The results show that: human of this site got a wide range of δ13C with the value as -14.0‰~-9.0‰ and the average as -11.0‰±1.0‰; the range of δ15N value is as 8.6‰~11.4‰, the average is as 9.5‰±0.5‰. The results show that diet of wild terrestrial animals was almost based on C3 plants, while Canidae were fed a fodder with millet and leftovers from human. Human ate a similar, mixed diet with and C4 plants (millet) and meat come from Canidae. Isotope data shows a significant negative correlation between δ13C and δ 15N of human, suggests an important status of wild terrestrial meat in the diet. Females consumed relatively more millet and less meat, differing significantly from males in terms of food composition. For living subsistence, hunting and farming were of the most important, with fishing and gathering as important supplements. Besides, there was a livestock raising behavior in this site, which took the Canidae as the object.

    Influence of dopamine D3 receptor gene polymorphism on body composition in twins
    LIU Xiaomin, DALAI Wuyun, LI Yuling
    2022, 41(02):  274-281.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0028
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    Balanced body composition plays an important role in maintaining the health of the body. Body composition is affected by both genetic and environmental factors. Dopamine is involved in the regulation of food intake, movement and cognition, dopamine D3 receptor (DRD3) plays a key regulatory role in dopamine pathway, and then plays a role in feeding function, thus may affect body composition. In order to understand the influence of genetic and environmental factors on body composition of twins, and to explore the correlation between single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of DRD3 gene and body composition, the triceps skinfold (d1), subscapular skinfold (d2) and suprailiac skinfold (d3) and body mass(m) were measured in 160 pairs of twins aged 4-12 years, d4(d1+d2), d5(d2/d1), body fat percentage(Pf), lean body mass(ml) were calculated. The whole genome DNA was extracted from oral swab. The zygosity was determined by Amp FISTER SinofilerPlus kit. Four SNPs of DRD3 gene were detected by SNapshot technique. The heritability of each index was estimated by Mx software. The association between SNP of DRD3 gene and each index was analyzed by generalized estimating equation (GEE) model. After adjusting for the age effect, except for some indexes (d3, ml), the heritability of boys and girls in preschool is generally low, the heritability of some indexes (d2, d4, Pf, ml) showed some gender differences. There were association between d2 and rs32409, rs226082 (P<0.05), between d3 and rs2134655, rs226082 (P<0.05), between d5 and rs2134655, rs167771 (P<0.05), between Pf and rs226082, rs167771 (P<0.05), between ml and rs2134655, rs226082 and rs167771(P<0.05) respectively. The results showed that both genetic and environmental factors affected the body composition development of children, but there may be some developmental stages and gender differences in genetic effects. SNPs of DRD3 gene may be related to body composition of children.

    Stature characteristics of the Chinese Mongolians
    DALAI Wuyun, ZHENG Lianbin, LI Yonglan
    2022, 41(02):  282-294.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0015
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    The paper is to study the stature of Mongolians in China. The adults stature of 4410 Chinese Mongolians (43% man; 57% women) was measured so as to analyze the stature classification and the variation trend of stature between different age groups and ethnic groups. The stature of Mongolian men is hyper-middle stature, while that of women is middle stature. Among 13 Mongolian ethnic groups, the stature of men in Ejina Torgouts are the tallest but the shortest ones in Yunnan while the stature of women in Ordos are the tallest but the shortest ones in Yunnan. The tall stature of men and women are with the highest occurrence rate, while with the lower occurrence rate of shorter and taller stature. The stature of Chinese Mongolians is close to the stature of other Chinese northern ethnic groups, higher than that of Chinese 7 southern ethnic groups, lower than that of Han nationality in the north, higher than that of Han nationality in the south, and lower than Japanese and Koreans. The stature difference among 13 ethnic groups is statistically important. Mongolians have higher stature than other ethnic groups in China.

    Analysis on the economic mode of the ancestors of Dayindong cave site in Yunnan province by stable isotope
    ZHAO Dongyue, LÜ Zheng, ZHANG Zetao, LIU Bo, LING Xue, WAN Yang, YANG Fan
    2022, 41(02):  295-307.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0035
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    The origin and dissemination of agriculture is an important innovation in the development of human society. This paper performed carbon and nitrogen stable isotopic analysis on human bones unearthed from the Dayindong cave site in Guangnan county, Wenshan prefecture, Yunnan Province, and explores the diet structure and the subsistence economy of ancient ancestors in Southeast Yunnan from the Neolithic Age to the Bronze Age. The results showed that the δ 13C values of the residents at Dayindong Site ranged from -20.2‰ to -17.5‰, mainly C3 plants, and the δ15N values ranged from 9.2‰ to 10.7‰, and their trophic levels were high. There are differences in diet between the sexes, men consume more animal protein than women. In terms of the subsistence strategy, the residents of Dayindong cave site mainly engaged in rice agriculture and hunting, and made diversified use of animal resources, possibly supplement food sources through collection, fishing and hunting, and livestock breeding. On this basis, considering that Yunnan is an important channel for the spread of agriculture to the Indo-China Peninsula, the selection of the Neolithic-Bronze Age production strategy in Yunnan was further sorted out. The populations in different areas of the Neolithic Age in Yunnan had different agriculture management strategies. In the Bronze Age, with the introduction of wheat, the selection of agricultural economy became more diversified, and the technology for obtaining animal resources became more mature and diverse. In addition to being affected by natural conditions, different agricultural strategy choices are also the result of cultural interaction with neighboring regions.

    Discussion on the utilization of fishery resources by the ancestors of Tianluoshan and liangwangcheng sites based on the diet analysis
    SHI Chongyang, GUO Yi
    2022, 41(02):  308-318.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0025
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    The utilization of fishery resources by human beings is an important issue to discuss the subsistence strategy. However, there is no specific paper on how to quantitatively analyze the proportion of fishery food resources in human diet. Taking the recipes of the ancestors of Tianluoshan site and Liangwangcheng site as examples, this paper analyzes the proportion of various food resources in the diet of the ancestors by using the FRUITS(Food Reconstruction Using Isotopic Transferred Signals) model. The results showed that the fishery resources of Liangwangcheng site accounted for about 5%~22% of the recipes, the freshwater fishery resources of Tianluoshan site accounted for about 5%~20% of the recipes, and the marine fishery resources were less than 10%.

    Pedostratigraphy and luminescence dating of the newly discovered Paleolithic sites along the Hanjiang River Valley, Central China
    GUO Xiaoqi, SUN Xuefeng, WANG Shejiang, XU Xinghua, ZENG Qiongxuan, LU Yiming, LU Huayu
    2022, 41(02):  319-333.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0037
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    The Hanjiang River Valley have abundant Paleolithic sites. The coexistence of the cobble-tool and the small flake-tool industriesis of considerable significance for the study of the exchange and integration of the Paleolithic industry between North and South China. Field surveys carried out along the Hanjiang River Valley in the summers of 2016-2018 and revealed 10 Paleolithic sites in the late Pleistocene. Thermally transferred optically stimulated luminescence (TT-OSL) is used to date samples from each site. According to the dating results, the hominin activities in these sites mainly occurred between 200-50 kaBP, covering three stages of L2, S1, and L1. Findings are basically consistent with the previous Paleolithic assemblages found in the second terrace of the Hanjiang River Valley. The study of these 10 Paleolithic sites enriches data of Paleolithic chronology, technology, and human activities in the southern Qinling Mountains, Central China.

    Excavation/Investigation Reports
    A preliminary report on the survey and excavation at Anyouzhuang Paleolithic site in Ningguo city, Anhui province
    DONG Zhe, ZHAN Shijia
    2022, 41(02):  334-341.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0031
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    Since 2003-2004, the Institute of Archaeology and Cultural Relics of Anhui Province conducted a field survey and archaeological excavation at Anyouzhuang Site, which located at the Shuiyangjiang River Basin. A total of fifty-two stone artifacts were discovered in the site, with three specimens from surface collection and forty-nine specimens from digging. The raw materials of these lithics are mainly nearby quartzite river cobbles and quartz is less common. The assemblages of stone artifacts include cores, flakes and stone tools. The lithic technique is free-hand percussion. According to the stone artifacts buried in the homogeneous red soil and vermiculated red soil, it is reasonable to anticipate that early human occupied the site during the Middle Pleistocene. Mode 2 lithic technology is surely existed in Anyouzhuang Site, which includes large core where large flakes are detached, large flakes and large cutting tools. Typical bifacial shaping handaxe is the first time appeared in this river basin. It is also important for discussing the spread of early human and lithic technology diffusion in the lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

    Observation and analysis on the abandonment context of the Haminmangha site in Inner Mongolia
    CHEN Zui, ZHU Yonggang
    2022, 41(02):  342-353.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0049
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    Located in the center of Horqin Sandy Land, Haminmangha Site is the most important prehistoric settlement site found in the north of the West Liaohe River. In this paper, the abandoned contexts of 44 dwellings excavated during 2010-2014 are comprehensively investigated and divided into three types. Different types of dwellings reflect different abandonment ways, which correspond to three abandonment patterns, corresponding to catastrophic, unexpected return and expected return.The fragile ecological environment of Horqin Sandy Land urges people to adopt a mobile settlement and rely on diversified ways of livelihood, thus forming the patterns of unexpected return and expected return. However, this short-term balance of human-land relationship still faces a potential crisis. When a series of factors are coupled, it leads to a terrible disaster, resulting in the catastrophic abandonment mode in the final stage of settlement.

    Literature Reviews
    A review of lithic technology and implied human behaviors from some typical Acheulean sites
    LI Hao, LEI Lei, LI Dawei, ZHANG Meng
    2022, 41(02):  354-369.  doi:10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0011
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    New research in recent years has obtained a series of achievements on our understanding of technological characteristics of the Acheulean Techno-complex in China. However, few studies in the region have focused on deep-seated issues regarding hominid social behaviors. In this paper, we present a review of social behavioral studies in three well-known Acheulean sites (i.e., Olorgesailie in Kenya, Gesher Benot Ya’aqov in Israel and Boxgrove in England) outside of China. We suggest that the technological strategies or material cultures can be thought as important reflections or expressions of invisible social behaviors, the latter consisting of an essential aspect in understanding the mechanisms and processes of human cultural evolution in the Stone Age. Therefore, in addition to investigating the archaeological records, social behavioral information that implied in these records will also need to be carefully unveiled, through which we can contribute to a better explanation of “the muddle in the middle” in human evolution.

    Investigating the mobility pattern of prehistoric hunter-gatherers based on the analysis of their lithic technology characteristics
    ZHAO Chao
    2022, 41(02):  370-380.  doi:10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0082
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    Mobility is the key strategy for hunter-gatherers to adapt their environments and extract resources. An investigation of the specific mobility patterns of hunter-gatherers can help us get comprehensive understanding of the issues like their cultural evolution, social transitions, and interaction with environment. Based on the perspectives of technological organization and the reference of the relevant case studies, this paper aims to reveal how to investigate specific patterns of mobility from the features of lithic remains. It indicates that while the design and production of lithic tools can well indicate the degrees of mobility, the lithic assemblages across different sites within settlement system can reflect the organizational structure of mobility. Specific attentions shall be paid to avoid the “equifinality problems” when we use lithics to infer mobility pattern, and the integration with other kind of evidence, such as dwelling structures, settlement pattern, and fauna and flora remains, is highly advocated to reconstruct mobility patterns of prehistoric hunter-gatherers.