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    A survey on physical characteristics of Uigur Nationality
    Ai Qionghua, Xiao Hui, Zhao Jianxin et al.
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    1993, 12 (04): 357-365.  
    Abstract627)      PDF (455KB)(50)       Save
    A survey on anthropomctry and somatoscopy of 529 adult Uigurs from 20 to 25 of age(271 males and 258 females) living in Yili of Xinjiang, the north--west in China,was carried out in May 1991.
    The results show that the Uigurs have their main characteristics as follows:
    The hair is straight in form and black in color in most cases. The eye is blown in color and the fold of upper palpebra is observable in most individuals.The Mongoloid fold is observable in 60.74% and 40.70% for males and females, respectively.
    The height of nose root is medium and high in most cases. The form of the nasal bridge is straight or concave. The height--breadth index of nose is 62.39 for males and 62.56 for females,the type of nose belongs to Leplorrhiny. The form of the carlobe is circular in 51.66%cases. There is Darwin's tubercle in most cases (71.21%).
    The length- -breadth index of head is 88.62 for males and 88.78 for females and the type of the head belongs to Hyperbrachycephaly. The breadth-height index of head is 65.03 for male sand 66.20 for females and belongs to T apeinoccphaly. The length--height index of head is 73.5Sand 74.69 for males and females, respectively, and the type of the head belongs to Hypsiccphaly. The average statures are 1684.6mm for males and 1 578.8mm for females.they belong to the Ultramedium and high types according to Martin's classification in both of males and females.
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    Ancient DNA capture techniques and genetic study progress of early southern China populations
    WANG Tianyi, ZHAO Dongyue, ZHANG Ming, QIAO Shiyu, YANG Fan, WAN Yang, YANG Ruowei, CAO Peng, LIU Feng, FU Qiaomei
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2020, 39 (04): 680-694.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0059
    Abstract497)   HTML110)    PDF (2604KB)(291)       Save

    Substantial development of the ancient DNA capture techniques allows for obtaining DNA from a wide range of materials, including bone and environmental sediments. Moreover, effective endogenous DNA fragments are also obtainable from low-latitude regions with poor preservation conditions, greatly enriching the material sources for ancient DNA research. This paper summarizes and discusses this new technology in two main aspects: 1) it summarizes and presents the potential application of this technology; and 2) it reviews the knowledge gained from the application of this new technology to the study of ancient genomes. Specifically, this paper focuses on the study of ancient genomes from southern China and covers three points. First, we reveal the new insights gained from the study of ancient genomes. Second, we provide an in-depth analysis of the differences among ancient genomes of early populations in southern China. Third, we discuss the use of ancient DNA capture technology in successfully obtaining high quality mitochondrial genomic information from four individuals (3446-3180 cal BP) of Dayin Cave site in Yunnan Province.

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    Stone materials discovered newly in the Upper Paleolithic sites of Gannan county, Heilongjiang Province
    GUAN Ying, LI Youqian, XING Song, HUANG Liping, CHENG Li, ZHOU Zhenyu
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2021, 40 (02): 281-291.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2018.0052
    Abstract420)   HTML47)    PDF (4002KB)(118)       Save

    The Paleolithic archaeological field work and systematical excavations in Heilongjiang Province started in the 1930s. Thus far, more than 100 sites or localities have been reported or published in different areas of Heilongjiang Province, mainly for the Upper Paleolithic. A new field survey was conducted in Gannan County in 2017 jointly by the Institute of Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, and the Heilongjiang Provincial Archaeology and Cultural Relics Institute. Upper Paleolithic deposits were found in a vast area around Taipinghu Reservoir, along with fine chert resources. One semi-subterranean dwelling was found at the Guanghetun Locality 1. These discoveries indicate large scale human occupations during the Upper Paleolithic period, associated with mature blade and microblade technologies. Two charcoal samples were excavated from the uppermost part of weathered crust of strata at the Guanghetun Locality 1. Radiocarbon dating results suggest that all of the archaeological remains found in our survey are younger than 30000 years. From the surface-collected and excavated specimens in the study area, a typical Upper Paleolithic lithic industry is identified. Chert is utilized as the main material used for the lithic technology of the ancient occupants, followed by siliceous limestone and some other rock types. The shapes of both microblade cores and blade cores are varied, including wedge-shaped, boat-shaped, and conical-shaped cores, etc; modified tools include end scraper, scrapers, unifacial points, bifacial points, modified microblades, etc. Heavy duty tools are not evident in this site or in the surrounding area.

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    Somatotype characteristics of the She people in Fujian
    HU Rong
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2021, 40 (05): 824-833.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0027
    Abstract399)   HTML4)    PDF (10839KB)(424)       Save

    According to historical records, She people had lived at the junction of Guangdong, Fujian and Jiangxi before Tang Dynasty. Today She people are mainly distributed in seven provinces, including Fujian, Zhejiang, Jiangxi, Guangdong, Anhui, Hunan and Guizhou. However, there has been a great controversy about the origin and migration of She people. In this study, we randomly selected 504 She nationality adults (285 males and 219 females) aged above18 years old from Fu’an city and Fuding city of Fujian Province, with measuring 10 Physical parameters including stature, weight, biepicondylar breadth of the humerus, biepicondylar breadth of the femur, circumference of tensed arm, circumference of claf, thickness of triceps skinfold, subscapular skinfold, supraspinale skinfold and middle calf skinfold. The Heath-Carter somatotype method was used to analyze the somatotype of She people in eastern Fujian. The average somatotype of She males (5.02-3.76-1.76) was endodermic, while the average somatotype of females (6.91-3.50-1.23) was endodermic. Compared with other southern ethnic minorities in China, the results show that somatotype of She people is closer to Han groups, especially the Han people from southern and eastern Fujian, and Han people from Guangxi, but more different from southern ethnic minority, which suggested that formation process of She nationality is closely related to Han nationality. This study provides the biological clue for origin of She, and also provides the necessary data and materials for the anthropological research in China.

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    Fire for hominin survivals in prehistory
    GAO Xing
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2020, 39 (03): 333-348.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0008
    Abstract358)   HTML68)    PDF (675KB)(273)       Save

    The paper made an in-depth review on the history of academic research on hominin use of fire. It discussed the significance of fire-use to human evolution and development, presented different hypotheses on the origins of controlled use of fire by human ancestors, and used a series of case-studies to demonstrate the way fire-use evidences were collected and analyzed, and the complicated developmental process of fire-use in human history. Controlled use of fire is a unique behavior and capacity of human beings, and it has played an essential role on hominid survival and evolution. The use of fire led to cooked foods and made nutrition more easily be digested, which in turn brought about a series of biological adjustments and changes in demography, behavioral patterns, survival strategies and social structures to our species. Fire helped hominins procure more resources and modify physical properties of imperative materials, such as heat treatment on lithic raw materials, and gradually brought about the invention of pottery and metal utensils, and eventually human civilization. The history of human-fire interaction is a long and tortuous process, from the occasional use of natural fire, controlled use of fire on and off for hundreds of thousands of years, effective preservation of fire seeds, the making of fire and habitual use of fire, to the omnipresent, indispensable and complex ways of fire-use today. It has been proposed that hominid fire-use history began with the emergence of Homo erectus, but the current available reliable evidence pointed to the time node of ca. 1.5 MaBP. The detection and verification of fire-use evidence of early stage are difficult and challenging, requiring delicate and detailed field excavation and recording, high-resolution taphonomic and spatial information, and all applicable analyses with state-of-the-art technologies. Possible factors of natural agencies in producing fire remains, such as natural fire and post-depositional disturbance, have to be evaluated and terminated. Only after such careful data collection and comprehensive analysis, the evidence presented and conclusions reached can be convincing and accepted.

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    The Out of East Asia theory of modern human origins supported by recent ancient mtDNA findings
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2019, 38 (04): 491-498.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2019.0068
    Abstract357)   HTML32)    PDF (1138KB)(167)       Save

    It was in 1983 that scientists constructed the first molecular model of modern human origin based on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogenetic tree, and concluded that modern people originated in Asia. However, in 1987, the Out of Africa model also known as African Eve model was proposed and replaced the original model. But the infinite site assumption and the molecular clock hypothesis on which the African Eve model was based have been widely considered to be unrealistic. In recent years, we have proposed a new molecular evolution theory, namely the maximum genetic diversity(MGD) theory, and used it to reconstruct a new model of human origin, which is basically consistent with the Multiregional model and has the root of modern humans in East Asia. The main difference between the African Eve and our Asia model in the mtDNA tree is the relationship between haplotypes N and R. The African Eve model says that N is the ancestor of R, and our model indicates it is the opposite. In this research, we studied those mtDNA data published from ancient samples, focusing on the relationship between mitochondrial haplogroup N and R. The results show that the three oldest humans (one from 45,000 years ago and the other two about 40,000 years) belong to the haplogroup R. In the human samples from 39,500 to 30,000 years ago, most of them belong to the sub-haplogroup U downstream of the haplogroup R, and only two of them fall into the haplogroup N group(Oase1 is 39,500 years ago, Salkhit is 34,426 years ago). The haplotypes of these two individuals are not part of any prensent N downstream haplotypes and so may be close to the roots of the haplogroup N. These ancient DNA data reveal that the haplogroup R is about 5,000 years older than the haplogroup N, thus confirming the East Asia model and invalidating the African Eve model.

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    The morphological evidence for the regional continuity and diversity of Middle Pleistocene human evolution in China
    LIU Wu, WU Xiujie, XING Song
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2019, 38 (04): 473-490.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2019.0048
    Abstract345)   HTML37)    PDF (3770KB)(176)       Save

    For decades, the Middle Pleistocene human fossils found in China have been attributed into Homo erectus and archaic Homo sapiens; respectively. This classification was mainly based on morphology and chronology of these fossils. Some cranial, mandibular and dental features identified and described on the human fossils of Zhoukoudian locality 1 by Weidenreich have been used as the standard for Homo erectus. According to the chronology of the Chinese Middle Pleistocene human fossils, later period of Middle Pleistocene around 300 ka are usually regarded as approximate border between Homo erectus and archaic Homo sapiens. For the past two decades, more Middle Pleistocene human fossils have been found in Africa, Europe and East Asia. Currently, the understanding for the fossil morphology and evolution of Middle Pleistocene humans has changed a lot. Recent studies of human fossils from Dali, Xujiayao, Panxian Dadong, Xuchang, Hualongdong indicate that in the past 300 ka, the human evolution in East Asia exhibited complicated diversities. Classifying all the hominins of this time period into archaic Homo sapiens cannot accurately reflect the human evolution patterns in East Asian continent. In the present study, with considering the research progress of Middle Pleistocene human evolution in China, the expressions of some morphological features with evolutionary and taxonomic values were analyzed for the Middle Pleistocene human fossils. Based on these analysis, the evolution pattern of Middle Pleistocene humans in China were tentatively explored. Our study indicates that the human fossils of early period of Middle Pleistocene in China including Zhoukoudian, Hexian, Yiyuan, Nanjing exhibit more features characterizing the region pattern and the expression of these feature are relatively stable. In contrast, the morphology expressions of human fossils from later period of Middle Pleistocene like Dali, Jinniushan, Maba, Panxian Dadong, Xujiayao, Xuchang, Hualongdong are more complicated with wide variation ranges. Besides, a number of evidence showing the living activity, healthy status and adaptation to environment have been found in the human fossils of this period. With these findings, the authors propose that the human evolution of early period of Middle Pleistocene in China mainly follows the pattern of morphological continuity. Entering the later part of Middle Pleistocene, the regional pattern of human evolution in China decreased with diversity taking the main place. A series of new human fossil findings and research progresses indicate that several hominins may co-exist in Middle Pleistocene’s East Asia. With available evidence of human fossil morphology and chronology, approximately 300 ka is the key time point for the evolution changes in Middle Pleistocene in China.

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    Phylogenetic reconstruction of Gigantopithecus blacki using palaeoproteomic analysis
    WANG Wei
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2020, 39 (04): 717-726.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0047
    Abstract336)   HTML14)    PDF (483KB)(331)       Save

    Gigantopithecus blacki is the largest hominoid that ever lived in southern China during Pleistocene epoch. Based on its highly specialized dentognathic anatomy, especially extremely large dentition and mandible size, this giant species is estimated to have a body mass of at least 200 kg. So far, chronological and biostratigraphic evidences indicate that G. blacki occupation ranged from 2 MaBP to 0.3 MaBP. The origins and evolution of this animal are controversial for long time, due to the absence of geological fossil record in late Miocene to Pliocene. In Nature (2019) we reported a proteome study on tooth enamel of G. blacki in Chuifeng cave of early Pleistocene (1.9 MaBP) in Bubing Basin, southern China[1]. We identified no endogenous proteins from the dentine, but instead recovered an ancient enamel proteome composed of 409 unique peptides matching 6 endogenous proteins. We demonstrate that G. blacki is a sister clade to orangutans (genus Pongo) with a common ancestor about 12~10 MaBP. This is the first time that molecular evidence is retrieved from such ancient fossil in the subtropical region, further suggesting that the study of ancient proteins will provide strong support for the exploration of the origin and evolution of extinct species, including hominins. In addition, this paper will also briefly review the history of phylogenetic and divergence discussion of Gigantopithecus and introduce the proceeding of the ancient proteins study.

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    The physical characters of Zang (Tibetan) Nationality
    Zhang Zhenbiao
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    1985, 4 (03): 250-258.  
    Abstract333)      PDF (610KB)(54)       Save
    A somatological survey on 105 males and 40 females of Zang nationality living in Xizang was carried out by the author in July, 1980.
    Judging from all nonmetrie data from more than 100 males and females, the features of Zang nationality are obviously similar to those of Mongoloid. In addition, all the means of measurements in Zang nationality fall within the range of the variations of those of other minorities living in China, and also fall within the range of Han nationality except the least frontal breadth (see table 6) . It is probable that Zang nationality belongs to the physical type of modern Chinese.
    In view of the cluster graph of kinship matrix for 11 groups of other minorities, Dy values and Cq2 values, the physicel characters of Zang nationality are basically similar to those of the minorities and Han nationality living in the priovinces of northwest and north China.
    The author believes that Zang nationality originally evolved from the ancient inhabitants during Neolithic period in Xizang region and later gradually formed the modern appearance by mixing with the ancient inhabitants migrated from the north and northwest region of China.
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    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    1985, 4 (04): 397-398.  
    Abstract333)      PDF (199KB)(15)       Save
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    Progress and prospects on osteological study of ancient human remains in China
    HE Jianing
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2021, 40 (02): 165-180.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0016
    Abstract329)   HTML74)    PDF (798KB)(283)       Save

    The osteological study of ancient human remains is an important part of physical anthropology, which has a history of more than one hundred years in China. Significant advances have been made in the last decade. In this paper, the progress of osteological study of Holocene human remains in China is reviewed.
    In the last ten years, the fields of research have expanded significantly, including population evolution history, paleopathology, skeletal abnormalities related to cultural customs, functional adaptation of long bones, paleodemography, body shape and size, climate adaptation, etc., and have accumulated many important physical data of ancient populations. The breadth and depth of the research have completely surpassed the situation that focused on ethnographic analysis in the last century.
    In addition to traditional methods based on metric and non-metric traits of skull and teeth, evolutionary quantitative genetic method has been introduced into regional population history study. There are also microevolutionary analysis of craniofacial morphologies on large spatial and temporal scale. Geometric morphometrics has proved to be of great value in the study of population history. In the study of paleopathology, there are some regional comparative researches focus on stress conditions, dental diseases, trauma, etc. Particular attention has been paid to the impact of social, cultural, and subsistence background on the pattern of disease. Biomechanics and geometric morphometrics have been used to analyze the long bone function, which provides important information for the reconstruction of activity patterns of past humans. New methods such as digital photography, micro-CT and 3D laser scanning, geometric morphology and morphometric maps have played an important role in supporting these progresses.
    Most studies highlight the significant advantages of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research, which is also essential for the future study. However, there are still some fields to be explored in China, such as the osteological study of children, female and physical adaptation to the environment. Basic research of osteology also needs to be strengthened.

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    A study of the mitochondrial genome of ancient inhabitants from the Latuotanggu cemetery, Tibet, China
    DING Manyu, HE Wei, WANG Tianyi, Shargan Wangdue, ZHANG Ming, CAO Peng, LIU Feng, DAI Qingyan, FU Qiaomei
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2021, 40 (01): 1-11.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0078
    Abstract317)   HTML91)    PDF (689KB)(222)       Save

    With rapid advances in next generation sequencing technologies, we have extracted three ancient DNA from samples from Tibet. With a dataset of present-day East Asians, we tried to reconstruct the history of this region using population genetic methods. Using the mtDNA genome, our study focused on the maternal relationship between ancient Tibetans living in 700BP and present-day populations, which revealed a genetic continuity on Tibetan plateau between the LaTuoTangGu (LTTG) cemetery and present-day Tibetans. This study is the first mtDNA genomic research of high elevation Tibetans.

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    Endocranial anatomy of the Ziyang 1 human skull
    WU Xiujie, YAN Yi
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2020, 39 (04): 511-520.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0024
    Abstract300)   HTML39)    PDF (1494KB)(279)       Save

    Although the specific location is not clear and its dating is still debated, the Ziyang human fossil has attracted extensive attention from academic circles because it is the first almost complete human skull fossil found after the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. For a long time, the research on the Ziyang skull was limited to only external morphology and measurements using traditional methods. In order to better understand the evolutionary stage of the Ziyang hominid, a high-resolution industrial CT scanner was used to analyze its internal anatomy, and 3D virtual reconstructions of its bone structure, frontal sinus, bony labyrinth, pneumatization of mastoid air cells, and endocast were created and analyzed. CT images of the bone structure shows that the diploë is very thick—much thicker than the outer and inner layers. This supports the previous identification results of the Ziyang individual over 50 years old. The frontal sinus of the Ziyang is in the shape of a leaf, bilaterally located on the inner and upper orbital areas, with surface areas on the left and right of 1780 mm2and 2910mm2, respectively. The size and proportion of the Ziyang semicircular canals of the bony labyrinth are different from Neandertals, but are in the ranges of those from Late Pleistocene Homo sapiens and recent modern humans. The pneumatization of mastoid cells was in pneumatic type, and almost occupied the entire mastoid process with pneumatic cavities. Based on the 3D virtual reconstruction of the endocast, the cranial capacity of the Ziyang skull was estimated at around 1250 mL. Although the endocast is small in all measurements, most of the brain morphology as well as the width-height index and the parietal lobe-length index were all within the variation range of modern humans, which are different from those of Homo erectus and Pleistocene archaic humans. The internal anatomy of the Ziyang skull retains a few original features, including the two occipital lobes that are prominently backwardly convex, and the cerebral fossa, which is larger and deeper than the cerebellar fossa. These two features are different from Holocene humans but are similar to Pleistocene early modern humans.

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    A Study of the Physical Characteristics of the Minnan Han
    ZHANG Xinghua, ZHENG Lianbin,YU Keli, HU Ying, CHENG Zhi, WANG Yang, XUE Hong, DENG Wei, SHI Rui
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2015, 34 (04): 516-527.  
    Abstract300)      PDF (5140KB)(32)       Save
    This study investigated 86 physical traits of 322 adult Minnan Han males in Fujian Province (149 urban males and 173 rural males) and 357 adult Minnan Han females (164 urban females and 193 rural females), calculated 24 physique indices, and compared this sample with data of China’s ethnic groups.The following results were determined. Male and female Minnan Han had a high percentage of upper eyelid eyefold and a low percentage of Mongoloid fold. Most of the opening heights of eyeslits were narrow with the external angle higher than the internal angle. Most nasal root height was of middle size and with a straight nasal profile. Most zygomatic projections were small. The nasal base was level in males but upturned in females. The alaenasi were medium sized with mostly oblique maximal diameter of nostrils and a wide breadth of the alaenasi. Lobe types were round in males and triangular in females. The upper lip skin height was medium with a higher degree of thin and middle-sized thickness of lips in males and the highest degree of thin size thickness of lips in females. Hair color was black, skin color yellow, and eye color brown.Index values of human facial types of the Minnan Han is between the North Asian and South Asian ethnic gros. Judging from index values, both male and female of Minnan Han are brachycephaly, hypsicephalic type, leptoprosopy, and leptorrhiny. Urban females are of aerocephalic type, while urban and rural males, and rural females are metriocephalic. The index value of human facial types of Minnan Han is closer to South Asian ethnic group. From body index values and indices,the Minnan Han is closer to North Asian group. Males were closer to the North Asias group, while females were closer to the South Asian group.
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    Studies on blood group of minority nationalities living in Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region -The distribution of ABO-blood group in nine nationalities
    Wang Guangjie, Wang Gang, Shang Jinqing et al.
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    1994, 13 (02): 165-170.  
    Abstract293)      PDF (445KB)(13)       Save
    The distribution of ABO blood group from nine nationalities was reported. They may be divided into three groups: 1.B>O>A>AB. Han and Hui nationalities belong to this group. 2.0>B>A>AB. It was found in Mongolian, Ewenke. Elunchun, Korean, Russian and Man nationalities. 3.B>A>O>AB. Only Daur nationlity has this characteristic.
    The genetic frequency r(0) is higher in Ewenke (0.7549), lower in Daur (0.5234) and Hui (0.5171) nationalities, p(A) is lower in Ewenke (0.1138), higher in Korean (0.2277) and Daur (0.2253), q(B) is higher in Hui (0.2818), lower in Ewenke (0.1313) and Korean (0.1753).
    Comparing with the same nationality living in other parts of China, obvious difference was found only in the same nationality of Elunchun or of Ewenke.
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    Somatotype characteristics of the Mongolian in China
    LI Yonglan, ZHENG Lianbin
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2020, 39 (03): 450-460.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2019.0029
    Abstract292)   HTML18)    PDF (16048KB)(77)       Save

    The Heath-Carter somatotyping method is used to study somatotypes of 4810 adults (2117 males and 2693 females) of 14 different Mongolian groups. Endomorphic and mesomorphic body shape of Mongolians are significantly positively correlated with age. In contrast, ectomorphic body shape is significantly negatively correlated with age; that is, with an increase of age, the body’s degree of linearity becomes smaller, and thus the somatotype tends to be round and thick. Male and female somatotypes of Mongolians in Chinaare all concentrated on the body shape of endo-mesomorph,balanced endo-mesomorph, meso-endoderm. With the increase of age, the occurrence of the three somatotypes is a significant positive correlation with age. Compared with the Han, Mongolians are more thick and strong. Our results of the principal components analysis show that the body’s degree of linearity is small, body fat is well developed and bone and muscle mass are less in Mongolians of the three northeastern provinces. On the standard somatotype chart, the point distribution of northern Mongolians is dense and shows that Mongolians in the north are closer in body shape to each other, and that Yunnan Mongolians in the south are very different because of small endomorphic and large ectomorphic traits. In Chinese ethnic groups that have been studied using the Heath-Carter somatotype, the Mongolian has the most developed body fat and the smallest body linearity degree.

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    Physical characteristics of the Buriats in China
    LI Yong-lan; ZHENG Lian-bin; LU Shun-hua; DONG Qigeqi; LIU Hai-yan; XIE Bin; ZHANG Xing-hua
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2011, 30 (04): 357-367.  
    Abstract284)      PDF (591KB)(330)       Save
    Buriats are ethnic groups of cross-border distribution, with those of China living in Inner Mongolia. In August 2007 we investigated the physical characteristics of 310 Buriat adults ( 152 males and 158 females), with the following results. In ethnic groups of the North Asian type of Mongoloid, the percentage of eye-fold of the upper eyelid is 49. 34% in males and 58. 23% in feamles. The percentage of Mongoloid Fold is lower with 52. 63% in males and 48. 10% in females. The colors of eye and skin are lighter. The typical physical characteristics of Buriats include hyperbrachycephaly, hypsicephalic type, mesocephaly, mesoprosopy, mesorrhiny, broad chest circumference, medium shoulder breadth, narrow distance between iliac crests, mesatiskelic type, medium length of trunk and squat-type. Euryprosopy is of the highest frequency in the Buriats. Typical physical characteristics of males are super-medium stature, while those of female are of medium stature. The physical characteristics of Buriats belong to a branch of the Central Asian type of the South Asian type of Mongoloid, which also includes Eurasian origins. The physical characteristics of the Buriats are close to ethnic groups of Mongols, but there are also some distinct differences between these two groups.
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    Physical characters of Zhuang nationality in Guangxi
    Zhang Zhenbiao, Zhang Jianjun
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    1983, 2 (03): 260-271.  
    Abstract276)      PDF (649KB)(23)       Save
    A somatological survey on 245 males and 61 females of Zhuang nationality living in Guangxi was carried out by the authors in January, 1980.
    The results of the studies are summarized as follows:
    The physical characters of Zhuang nationality
    The hair is straight in form and black in color in most cases. The form of the head belongs to short-wide type and cephalic index mostly belongs to Brachycephaly.
    Brown eye color is commonly represented in both sexes. There are not Mongolian folds in most cases. Double eye-lids are observed in high percentage. The palpebral opening is o£ the wide type and its direction is of horizontal type.
    The profile view of the nasal bridge is mainly of wavy type. The nasal index belongs to Mesorrhiny. The facial form in most cases is of ovoid type. According to the component classification of the morphological facial height and facial breadth, most of them belong to low-wide type. The morphological facial index belongs to Euryprosopy.
    The relationship between Zhuang and other nationalities
    In comparison with other minority nationalities in "Rm" value, Zhuang nationality is closer to Li, Buyi and Yi nationalities. As to the relationship with Han nationality living in different provinces, Zhuang nationality is by "Rm" value, closer to Han nationality living in Guangxi, Guangdong, Fujian and Hunan provinces. Zhuang nationality is basically similar to the other inhabitances living in South China in physical1 characters.
    Zhuang nationality is different 任om Han living in Guangxi mainly in the fact that they have lower morphological facial height, lower height of nose and that of head.
    According to these analyses we consider that Zhuang nationality belongs to South China pattern in physical characters, like other inhabitances living in South China, and may originate from a common ancestor.
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    Comparison of head and facial features among Kazaks, Uigurs and Mongols of Xinjiang
    Ai Qionghua, Sai Fuding, Xu Yuhe; Abudu Aini
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    1996, 15 (01): 50-57.  
    Abstract275)      PDF (2551KB)(138)       Save
    A survey on somatoscopy of head and facial features was carried out in Kazak, Uigur and Mongol ethnic groups, living in Yili of Xinjiang, Northwest China and totally 1611 adults (551 Kazaks, 527 Uigurs and 533 Mongols) were investigated in 1991.
    The results had been compared among the three ethnic groups from each other. There are many similarities among Kazaks, Uigurs and Mongols. The common features in the three ethnic groups include the predominance of ovoid and ellipse facial forms, brown eyes, good fold of upper palpebra, ovoid and ellipse auricular forms, circular and quadrangular forms of earlops and straight and black hairs.
    Kazaks are more similar to Mongols than to Uigurs.
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    Study on the stature of Dalian Han nation students
    Xu Fei, Ma Xiaokai, Zhao Wei, Kumakura C, Ashizawa K
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    1999, 18 (01): 28-34.  
    Abstract274)      PDF (218KB)(29)       Save
    According to the international standard anthropometric method, we research the stature of 1214 Han nation students aged 7— 17 who live in rural area of Dalian, and based on the data available, we research the growth secular trend, sex differnces, and the age at peak height velocity of stature o f these students. The result shows that the stature o f Dalian Han nation students become higher gradually during the last 21 years. The increase of stature per decade is 2. 94cm for male and 2. 09cm for female, but the stature of the group of 8 years old and those of the groups of 9 and 10 years old decrease in the period from 1987 to 1995. The age at peak height velocity appears 2 years earlier for male and 1 year for female within this 21 years.
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