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    Ancient DNA capture techniques and genetic study progress of early southern China populations
    WANG Tianyi, ZHAO Dongyue, ZHANG Ming, QIAO Shiyu, YANG Fan, WAN Yang, YANG Ruowei, CAO Peng, LIU Feng, FU Qiaomei
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2020, 39 (04): 680-694.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0059
    Abstract409)   HTML96)    PDF (2604KB)(237)       Save

    Substantial development of the ancient DNA capture techniques allows for obtaining DNA from a wide range of materials, including bone and environmental sediments. Moreover, effective endogenous DNA fragments are also obtainable from low-latitude regions with poor preservation conditions, greatly enriching the material sources for ancient DNA research. This paper summarizes and discusses this new technology in two main aspects: 1) it summarizes and presents the potential application of this technology; and 2) it reviews the knowledge gained from the application of this new technology to the study of ancient genomes. Specifically, this paper focuses on the study of ancient genomes from southern China and covers three points. First, we reveal the new insights gained from the study of ancient genomes. Second, we provide an in-depth analysis of the differences among ancient genomes of early populations in southern China. Third, we discuss the use of ancient DNA capture technology in successfully obtaining high quality mitochondrial genomic information from four individuals (3446-3180 cal BP) of Dayin Cave site in Yunnan Province.

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    Fire for hominin survivals in prehistory
    GAO Xing
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2020, 39 (03): 333-348.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0008
    Abstract299)   HTML56)    PDF (675KB)(256)       Save

    The paper made an in-depth review on the history of academic research on hominin use of fire. It discussed the significance of fire-use to human evolution and development, presented different hypotheses on the origins of controlled use of fire by human ancestors, and used a series of case-studies to demonstrate the way fire-use evidences were collected and analyzed, and the complicated developmental process of fire-use in human history. Controlled use of fire is a unique behavior and capacity of human beings, and it has played an essential role on hominid survival and evolution. The use of fire led to cooked foods and made nutrition more easily be digested, which in turn brought about a series of biological adjustments and changes in demography, behavioral patterns, survival strategies and social structures to our species. Fire helped hominins procure more resources and modify physical properties of imperative materials, such as heat treatment on lithic raw materials, and gradually brought about the invention of pottery and metal utensils, and eventually human civilization. The history of human-fire interaction is a long and tortuous process, from the occasional use of natural fire, controlled use of fire on and off for hundreds of thousands of years, effective preservation of fire seeds, the making of fire and habitual use of fire, to the omnipresent, indispensable and complex ways of fire-use today. It has been proposed that hominid fire-use history began with the emergence of Homo erectus, but the current available reliable evidence pointed to the time node of ca. 1.5 MaBP. The detection and verification of fire-use evidence of early stage are difficult and challenging, requiring delicate and detailed field excavation and recording, high-resolution taphonomic and spatial information, and all applicable analyses with state-of-the-art technologies. Possible factors of natural agencies in producing fire remains, such as natural fire and post-depositional disturbance, have to be evaluated and terminated. Only after such careful data collection and comprehensive analysis, the evidence presented and conclusions reached can be convincing and accepted.

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    Phylogenetic reconstruction of Gigantopithecus blacki using palaeoproteomic analysis
    WANG Wei
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2020, 39 (04): 717-726.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0047
    Abstract278)   HTML12)    PDF (483KB)(304)       Save

    Gigantopithecus blacki is the largest hominoid that ever lived in southern China during Pleistocene epoch. Based on its highly specialized dentognathic anatomy, especially extremely large dentition and mandible size, this giant species is estimated to have a body mass of at least 200 kg. So far, chronological and biostratigraphic evidences indicate that G. blacki occupation ranged from 2 MaBP to 0.3 MaBP. The origins and evolution of this animal are controversial for long time, due to the absence of geological fossil record in late Miocene to Pliocene. In Nature (2019) we reported a proteome study on tooth enamel of G. blacki in Chuifeng cave of early Pleistocene (1.9 MaBP) in Bubing Basin, southern China[1]. We identified no endogenous proteins from the dentine, but instead recovered an ancient enamel proteome composed of 409 unique peptides matching 6 endogenous proteins. We demonstrate that G. blacki is a sister clade to orangutans (genus Pongo) with a common ancestor about 12~10 MaBP. This is the first time that molecular evidence is retrieved from such ancient fossil in the subtropical region, further suggesting that the study of ancient proteins will provide strong support for the exploration of the origin and evolution of extinct species, including hominins. In addition, this paper will also briefly review the history of phylogenetic and divergence discussion of Gigantopithecus and introduce the proceeding of the ancient proteins study.

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    Progress and prospects on osteological study of ancient human remains in China
    HE Jianing
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2021, 40 (02): 165-180.   DOI: 10.16359/j.1000-3193/AAS.2021.0016
    Abstract269)   HTML65)    PDF (798KB)(213)       Save

    The osteological study of ancient human remains is an important part of physical anthropology, which has a history of more than one hundred years in China. Significant advances have been made in the last decade. In this paper, the progress of osteological study of Holocene human remains in China is reviewed.
    In the last ten years, the fields of research have expanded significantly, including population evolution history, paleopathology, skeletal abnormalities related to cultural customs, functional adaptation of long bones, paleodemography, body shape and size, climate adaptation, etc., and have accumulated many important physical data of ancient populations. The breadth and depth of the research have completely surpassed the situation that focused on ethnographic analysis in the last century.
    In addition to traditional methods based on metric and non-metric traits of skull and teeth, evolutionary quantitative genetic method has been introduced into regional population history study. There are also microevolutionary analysis of craniofacial morphologies on large spatial and temporal scale. Geometric morphometrics has proved to be of great value in the study of population history. In the study of paleopathology, there are some regional comparative researches focus on stress conditions, dental diseases, trauma, etc. Particular attention has been paid to the impact of social, cultural, and subsistence background on the pattern of disease. Biomechanics and geometric morphometrics have been used to analyze the long bone function, which provides important information for the reconstruction of activity patterns of past humans. New methods such as digital photography, micro-CT and 3D laser scanning, geometric morphology and morphometric maps have played an important role in supporting these progresses.
    Most studies highlight the significant advantages of multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary research, which is also essential for the future study. However, there are still some fields to be explored in China, such as the osteological study of children, female and physical adaptation to the environment. Basic research of osteology also needs to be strengthened.

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    The Out of East Asia theory of modern human origins supported by recent ancient mtDNA findings
    ZHANG Ye, HUANG Shi
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2019, 38 (04): 491-498.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2019.0068
    Abstract269)   HTML26)    PDF (1138KB)(138)       Save

    It was in 1983 that scientists constructed the first molecular model of modern human origin based on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) phylogenetic tree, and concluded that modern people originated in Asia. However, in 1987, the Out of Africa model also known as African Eve model was proposed and replaced the original model. But the infinite site assumption and the molecular clock hypothesis on which the African Eve model was based have been widely considered to be unrealistic. In recent years, we have proposed a new molecular evolution theory, namely the maximum genetic diversity(MGD) theory, and used it to reconstruct a new model of human origin, which is basically consistent with the Multiregional model and has the root of modern humans in East Asia. The main difference between the African Eve and our Asia model in the mtDNA tree is the relationship between haplotypes N and R. The African Eve model says that N is the ancestor of R, and our model indicates it is the opposite. In this research, we studied those mtDNA data published from ancient samples, focusing on the relationship between mitochondrial haplogroup N and R. The results show that the three oldest humans (one from 45,000 years ago and the other two about 40,000 years) belong to the haplogroup R. In the human samples from 39,500 to 30,000 years ago, most of them belong to the sub-haplogroup U downstream of the haplogroup R, and only two of them fall into the haplogroup N group(Oase1 is 39,500 years ago, Salkhit is 34,426 years ago). The haplotypes of these two individuals are not part of any prensent N downstream haplotypes and so may be close to the roots of the haplogroup N. These ancient DNA data reveal that the haplogroup R is about 5,000 years older than the haplogroup N, thus confirming the East Asia model and invalidating the African Eve model.

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    A study of the mitochondrial genome of ancient inhabitants from the Latuotanggu cemetery, Tibet, China
    DING Manyu, HE Wei, WANG Tianyi, Shargan Wangdue, ZHANG Ming, CAO Peng, LIU Feng, DAI Qingyan, FU Qiaomei
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2021, 40 (01): 1-11.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0078
    Abstract259)   HTML74)    PDF (689KB)(175)       Save

    With rapid advances in next generation sequencing technologies, we have extracted three ancient DNA from samples from Tibet. With a dataset of present-day East Asians, we tried to reconstruct the history of this region using population genetic methods. Using the mtDNA genome, our study focused on the maternal relationship between ancient Tibetans living in 700BP and present-day populations, which revealed a genetic continuity on Tibetan plateau between the LaTuoTangGu (LTTG) cemetery and present-day Tibetans. This study is the first mtDNA genomic research of high elevation Tibetans.

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    The morphological evidence for the regional continuity and diversity of Middle Pleistocene human evolution in China
    LIU Wu, WU Xiujie, XING Song
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2019, 38 (04): 473-490.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2019.0048
    Abstract252)   HTML31)    PDF (3770KB)(147)       Save

    For decades, the Middle Pleistocene human fossils found in China have been attributed into Homo erectus and archaic Homo sapiens; respectively. This classification was mainly based on morphology and chronology of these fossils. Some cranial, mandibular and dental features identified and described on the human fossils of Zhoukoudian locality 1 by Weidenreich have been used as the standard for Homo erectus. According to the chronology of the Chinese Middle Pleistocene human fossils, later period of Middle Pleistocene around 300 ka are usually regarded as approximate border between Homo erectus and archaic Homo sapiens. For the past two decades, more Middle Pleistocene human fossils have been found in Africa, Europe and East Asia. Currently, the understanding for the fossil morphology and evolution of Middle Pleistocene humans has changed a lot. Recent studies of human fossils from Dali, Xujiayao, Panxian Dadong, Xuchang, Hualongdong indicate that in the past 300 ka, the human evolution in East Asia exhibited complicated diversities. Classifying all the hominins of this time period into archaic Homo sapiens cannot accurately reflect the human evolution patterns in East Asian continent. In the present study, with considering the research progress of Middle Pleistocene human evolution in China, the expressions of some morphological features with evolutionary and taxonomic values were analyzed for the Middle Pleistocene human fossils. Based on these analysis, the evolution pattern of Middle Pleistocene humans in China were tentatively explored. Our study indicates that the human fossils of early period of Middle Pleistocene in China including Zhoukoudian, Hexian, Yiyuan, Nanjing exhibit more features characterizing the region pattern and the expression of these feature are relatively stable. In contrast, the morphology expressions of human fossils from later period of Middle Pleistocene like Dali, Jinniushan, Maba, Panxian Dadong, Xujiayao, Xuchang, Hualongdong are more complicated with wide variation ranges. Besides, a number of evidence showing the living activity, healthy status and adaptation to environment have been found in the human fossils of this period. With these findings, the authors propose that the human evolution of early period of Middle Pleistocene in China mainly follows the pattern of morphological continuity. Entering the later part of Middle Pleistocene, the regional pattern of human evolution in China decreased with diversity taking the main place. A series of new human fossil findings and research progresses indicate that several hominins may co-exist in Middle Pleistocene’s East Asia. With available evidence of human fossil morphology and chronology, approximately 300 ka is the key time point for the evolution changes in Middle Pleistocene in China.

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    Somatotype characteristics of the She people in Fujian
    Hu Rong
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0027
    Accepted: 11 September 2020

    Endocranial anatomy of the Ziyang 1 human skull
    WU Xiujie, YAN Yi
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2020, 39 (04): 511-520.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0024
    Abstract220)   HTML32)    PDF (1494KB)(240)       Save

    Although the specific location is not clear and its dating is still debated, the Ziyang human fossil has attracted extensive attention from academic circles because it is the first almost complete human skull fossil found after the establishment of the People’s Republic of China. For a long time, the research on the Ziyang skull was limited to only external morphology and measurements using traditional methods. In order to better understand the evolutionary stage of the Ziyang hominid, a high-resolution industrial CT scanner was used to analyze its internal anatomy, and 3D virtual reconstructions of its bone structure, frontal sinus, bony labyrinth, pneumatization of mastoid air cells, and endocast were created and analyzed. CT images of the bone structure shows that the diploë is very thick—much thicker than the outer and inner layers. This supports the previous identification results of the Ziyang individual over 50 years old. The frontal sinus of the Ziyang is in the shape of a leaf, bilaterally located on the inner and upper orbital areas, with surface areas on the left and right of 1780 mm2and 2910mm2, respectively. The size and proportion of the Ziyang semicircular canals of the bony labyrinth are different from Neandertals, but are in the ranges of those from Late Pleistocene Homo sapiens and recent modern humans. The pneumatization of mastoid cells was in pneumatic type, and almost occupied the entire mastoid process with pneumatic cavities. Based on the 3D virtual reconstruction of the endocast, the cranial capacity of the Ziyang skull was estimated at around 1250 mL. Although the endocast is small in all measurements, most of the brain morphology as well as the width-height index and the parietal lobe-length index were all within the variation range of modern humans, which are different from those of Homo erectus and Pleistocene archaic humans. The internal anatomy of the Ziyang skull retains a few original features, including the two occipital lobes that are prominently backwardly convex, and the cerebral fossa, which is larger and deeper than the cerebellar fossa. These two features are different from Holocene humans but are similar to Pleistocene early modern humans.

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    Stone materials discovered newly in the Upper Paleolithic sites of Gannan county, Heilongjiang Province
    GUAN Ying, LI Youqian, XING Song, HUANG Liping, CHENG Li, ZHOU Zhenyu
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2021, 40 (02): 281-291.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2018.0052
    Abstract210)   HTML40)    PDF (4002KB)(86)       Save

    The Paleolithic archaeological field work and systematical excavations in Heilongjiang Province started in the 1930s. Thus far, more than 100 sites or localities have been reported or published in different areas of Heilongjiang Province, mainly for the Upper Paleolithic. A new field survey was conducted in Gannan County in 2017 jointly by the Institute of Paleontology and Paleoanthropology, and the Heilongjiang Provincial Archaeology and Cultural Relics Institute. Upper Paleolithic deposits were found in a vast area around Taipinghu Reservoir, along with fine chert resources. One semi-subterranean dwelling was found at the Guanghetun Locality 1. These discoveries indicate large scale human occupations during the Upper Paleolithic period, associated with mature blade and microblade technologies. Two charcoal samples were excavated from the uppermost part of weathered crust of strata at the Guanghetun Locality 1. Radiocarbon dating results suggest that all of the archaeological remains found in our survey are younger than 30000 years. From the surface-collected and excavated specimens in the study area, a typical Upper Paleolithic lithic industry is identified. Chert is utilized as the main material used for the lithic technology of the ancient occupants, followed by siliceous limestone and some other rock types. The shapes of both microblade cores and blade cores are varied, including wedge-shaped, boat-shaped, and conical-shaped cores, etc; modified tools include end scraper, scrapers, unifacial points, bifacial points, modified microblades, etc. Heavy duty tools are not evident in this site or in the surrounding area.

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    The scope of movement of modern humans during the Late Pleistocene in Northeast Asia
    CHOI Cheolmin, GAO Xing, XIA Wenting, ZHONG Wei
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2021, 40 (01): 12-27.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2019.0055
    Abstract208)   HTML45)    PDF (835KB)(134)       Save

    Due to the development of technology and the increase in the number of specialized researchers, a considerable amount of Late Pleistocene sites have been found in Northeast Asia. Issues concerning modern human fossils, Pleistocene environment, lithic manufacturing techniques and human adaptation have been debated based on these archaeological sites. In particular, the provenance analysis of special raw materials as obsidian enables the researches on the movement and the scope of activities of modern humans during the late Pleistocene who had to continuously be on the move for survival. Most researchers have estimated the mobility of hunter-gatherers based on ethnographic researches. The direct and indirect scope of migration of the modern humans can be assumed through the range of Tanged Points and obsidian artifacts of Mt. Baekdu(Changbai). Unlike other lithic manufacturing techniques, the obsidian artifacts were not passed on to several generations but usually used and discarded by a single generation. Benefited from obsidian’s unique chemical composition, it could been seen as the most reliable evidence to indicate the scope of migration.
    Lithic manufacturing techniques such as Levallois, Crest, and Yubetsu were widely disseminated over a long time, which is not appropriate to use these lithic techniques to estimate the scope of movement of modern humans. However, the Tanged Point, which had been popularly utilized in a short chronological period and enjoyed a limited distribution in the Northeast Asian region. Based on the distribution of obsidian artifacts from Mt. Baekdu (Changbai) and the Tanged Points, the scope of activity of the modern humans during the Late Pleistocene (MIS 2) is estimated as 193,000~520,000 km2.

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    Geometric morphometry of the enamel-dentine junction interface of Lufengpithecus hudienensis lower fourth premolars
    PAN Lei, LIAO Wei, WANG Wei, LIU Jianhui, JI Xueping, YANG Xiaomei, HAO Yixin
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2020, 39 (04): 555-563.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0023
    Abstract203)   HTML10)    PDF (1369KB)(126)       Save

    The dental endostructural morphology of the Miocene hominid, Lufengpithecus hudienensis from Yuanmou basin remains largely undocumented. Here we first use micro-CT scanning and landmark-based, 3D geometric morphometric tools to conduct a preliminary study on the enamel-dentine junction (EDJ) morphology of Lufengpithecus hudienensis lower fourth premolars(n=6), with a comparative sample of fossil and extant great apes (n=26) and modern humans(n=10). Multivariate analysis of the shapes of the EDJ ridge curves suggests that L. hudienensis as membership in the hominids, it has slender occlusal outline and smaller fovea anterior than posterior, which is a relatively primitive feature (compared with Homo) widely expressed among great apes and early hominins. In the between-group PCA (bgPCA) plot, L. hudienensis is placed at an intermediate position between Gorilla (sharp dentine horns and elevated topology) and other hominid taxa with relatively flattened EDJ represented by Pan, fossil Pongo and Gigantopithecus blacki, such similarities may reflect functional adaptation rather than phylogenetic signals, but further analysis with a large sample is needed before drawing a conclusion. Interspecific overlap between L. hudienensis and comparative samples is minor. The morphological affinity between L. hudienensis and comparative samples is investigated. The possible implications for dietary inferences in light of EDJ morphology and previously documented enamel thickness data are discussed.

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    Discussions on stratigraphy and age of the Xujiayao hominin
    WANG Fagang, LI Feng
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2020, 39 (02): 161-172.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2019.0025
    Abstract200)   HTML32)    PDF (23750KB)(154)       Save

    The Xujiayao hominin fossils discovered at the Houjiayao site in Yangyuan County Hebei Province in the western Nihewan Basin have been well-known and intensively studied in North China. However, the stratigraphy and age of the human fossils have been hotly debated for many years. The site was firstly excavated in the late 1970s, and twenty pieces of hominin fossils have been discovered along with thousands of stone artifacts and mammalian fossils. From 2007 to 2012, a new excavation by Hebei Provincial Institute of Cultural Relics was conducted from which new stratigraphic information has been obtained besides the newly discovered archaeological remains. An uncomformity of the depositional sequence was identified in the 2007~2012 excavation about four to five metres under the lower archaeological horizons which sheds new light on understanding the dates and stratigraphic association of hominin fossils and archaeological material at the site. The hominin fossils, stone artifacts and mammalian fossils once considered to be buried in the Nihewan formation were actually yielded in the fluvial deposit above the uncomformity which might belong to the third terrace of the Liyigou River. Many independent dating projects have been conducted at the sites since its discovery applying U-series, Radiocarbon, Paleomagnetic, OSL, and ESR, and a range of 200 to 500 kaBP was suggested for the estimated age of the archaeological layers. In this paper, we evaluate various dating results together with the new stratigraphic information obtained during the new excavations. We suggest that dating results yielded from OSL and 26Al/ 10Be methods are the best representatives of the age of the site. We propose that the Xujiayao hominin from the upper archaeological horizon lived in the late Middle Pleistocene, around 200~160 kaBP; the age of lower archaeological horizon requires more work, and currently the OSL result suggests an age of 198±15 kaBP and the 26Al/ 10Be results suggest an average age of 240±50 kaBP.

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    Craniometric evidence and ancient DNA analysis of the population origin of Ngari prefecture of Tibet Autonomous Region between 3rd and 4th century AD
    ZHANG Yajun, ZHANG Xu, ZHAO Xin, TONG Tao, LI Linhui
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2020, 39 (03): 435-449.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0009
    Abstract194)   HTML15)    PDF (11367KB)(65)       Save

    Gurugyam cemetery, located in the Gar County of Ngari Prefecture of Tibet Autonomous Region, was excavated in 2012 and 2014 by the Institute of Archaeology, Chinese Academy of Social Sciences and Institute of Cultural Heritage Protection of Tibet Autonomous Region expedition. Pre-Imperial Tibet component of Gurugyam cemetery has eight burials dated from 3rd to 4th century AD from which 32 individuals were unearthed. The primary sample used in the craniometric analysis is comprised of 16 well-preserved adult crania(male, n=7; female, n=9). The result of cluster analysis shows that the ancient population of Kashacuo in Sichuan was the first one that assigned to the Gurugyam sample. Additionally, the Gurugyam sample is more similar to ancient populations of Duogang and Chawuhu, Xinjiang than to other clusters of ancient populations sampled from Shannxi, Shanxi, and Henan. When compared to other modern groups, Gurugyam sample is clustered with Guangxi Zhuang people and Tibetan A type population. Mitochondrial DNA analysis reveals some genetic divergence among the Gurugyam sample, denoting a geographic pattern of genetic variation with maternal lineages mainly from the east of Eurasia and partially from the west of Eurasia. Divergence within the Gurugyam sample has contributed to the maternal gene pool of modern Tibetan and other ethnic groups in the Tibet Autonomous Region.

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    Ancient mitogenomes reveals Holocene human population history in the Nenjiang River valley
    LI Chunxiang, ZHANG Fan, MA Pengcheng, WANG Lixin, CUI Yinqiu
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2020, 39 (04): 695-705.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0058
    Abstract187)   HTML23)    PDF (2962KB)(173)       Save

    The Nenjiang River valley is one of the most important settlements for ancient Chinese people in northeast China. Archaeological research demonstrates that the inhabitants had practiced mixed hunting-gathering-fishing since the Neolithic Age, only began to engage in animal husbandry and limited millet cultivation until the late Neolithic Age and early Bronze Age. A problem remained about whether it was a transfer of culture and technology or if it involved the migration of people who experimented with animal husbandry and limited millet cultivation and then brought them to Nenjiang River valley. Here we successfully sequenced 24 complete mitochondrial DNA genomes of 11000 to 2000-year-old humans from the Nenjiang River Valley. The results show that the Bronze / Iron Age populations of Nenjiang River valley matrilineal received partial contribution from the populations of the West Liao River, despite some level of continuity between Neolithic Age groups and Bronze / Iron Age. Combining paleoclimatology, archaeology, and linguistics, we estimate that the ancient people of West Liao River had migrated to the Nenjiang River valley carried their cultural techniques and languages between 4,000 and 3,000 years ago.

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    Comparison and summary of ancient DNA extraction technology
    ZHAO Jing, WANG Chuanchao
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2020, 39 (04): 706-716.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0062
    Abstract186)   HTML19)    PDF (1256KB)(148)       Save

    There are many methods to extract ancient DNA from ancient raw materials. Generally, the research of ancient DNA is subject to factors such as serious degradation, while the low content of endogenous ancient DNA, the high content of microbial and modern human DNA. Whether we can successfully obtain reliable and sufficient endogenous ancient DNA has always been a practical difficulty and challenge in the field of ancient DNA research. The most direct and convenient strategy to eliminate the pollution effectively is in the procedure of ancient DNA extraction. This paper summarized the common methods of ancient DNA extraction to remove exogenous pollutants. We compared and analyzed the advantages and disadvantages of each method. This paper also introduced the time commonly used in the bone lysis step and suggested the best incubation time was 4 days at room temperature by exploring the effect of different lysis time on the recovery efficiency of ancient DNA. At the same time, we surveyed the representative methods of ancient DNA purification and the performance in the application. Our summary and experience could provide reference information for researchers in the field of ancient DNA research.

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    Paleodemographic research on Liangzhu culture cemetery of the Jiangzhuang site in Xinghua, Jiangsu
    HOU Kan, LIN Liugen, GAN Huiyuan, YAN Long, ZHU Xiaoting
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2021, 40 (02): 239-248.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0017
    Abstract186)   HTML18)    PDF (979KB)(76)       Save

    Researches on paleodemography contains the researches on stationery parameters and dynamic parameters. The analysis of sex and age structure and the estimate of fertility level of Liangzhu culture cemetery in Jiangzhuang site in Xinghua, Jiangsu were conducted, and the latter was implemented by the method of using n30+/n5+ to estimate crude birth rate(CBR). It was revealed that the sex ratio of Jiangzhuang was 105 which fell well within the normal range. The age-at-death distribution of Jiangzhuang approximated normal distribution by model fitting, which might be associated with the under-enumeration of infants, the problems in adult age estimation and the establishment of the criteria of judging “old age”. By estimating and contrasting the CBRs of Jiangzhuang and other Neolithic human skeleton samples, it was revealed that the fertility level of Jiangzhuang is relatively high, which might be associated with the favorable living environment and the development of civilization. Otherwise, the research also indicated that the experiments of new methods and paying attention to the issue of the representativeness of human skeleton sample were vital for advancing paleodemography.

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    Enamel-dentine junction shape and enamel thickness distribution of East Asian Middle Pleistocene hominin lower second molars
    XING Song, ZHOU Mi, PAN Lei
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2020, 39 (04): 521-531.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2020.0019
    Abstract186)   HTML20)    PDF (1105KB)(276)       Save

    Morphological diversity has been revealed in the cranial, mandibular, and dental materials of East Asian Middle Pleistocene hominins, and the taxonomy of later members is uncertain. In order to further apprehend the morphological variability of East Asian Middle Pleistocene hominins and provide evidence for the taxonomy of the later members, the present study conducted three-dimensional morphometric analyses, including morphometric map of lateral enamel thickness and diffeomorphic surface matching of enamel-dentine junction (EDJ), on the lower second molars. The results indicate that: 1) East Asian Middle Pleistocene hominins could be distinguished from both Neanderthals and modern human; 2) East Asian late Middle Pleistocene hominins displayed special distribution pattern of lateral enamel thickness and a more progressive EDJ shape relative to mid-Middle Pleistocene Homo erectus. The present study quantifies two important morphologies and their variability, i.e., distribution pattern of enamel thickness and EDJ shape, in addition to the individual dental traits studied by previous works. It will provide further insight into the taxonomies of East Asian late Middle Pleistocene hominins and help designating isolated teeth from the same period into their correct morphological groups.

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    A survey on physical characteristics of Uigur Nationality
    Ai Qionghua, Xiao Hui, Zhao Jianxin et al.
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    1993, 12 (04): 357-365.  
    Abstract183)      PDF (455KB)(31)       Save
    A survey on anthropomctry and somatoscopy of 529 adult Uigurs from 20 to 25 of age(271 males and 258 females) living in Yili of Xinjiang, the north--west in China,was carried out in May 1991.
    The results show that the Uigurs have their main characteristics as follows:
    The hair is straight in form and black in color in most cases. The eye is blown in color and the fold of upper palpebra is observable in most individuals.The Mongoloid fold is observable in 60.74% and 40.70% for males and females, respectively.
    The height of nose root is medium and high in most cases. The form of the nasal bridge is straight or concave. The height--breadth index of nose is 62.39 for males and 62.56 for females,the type of nose belongs to Leplorrhiny. The form of the carlobe is circular in 51.66%cases. There is Darwin's tubercle in most cases (71.21%).
    The length- -breadth index of head is 88.62 for males and 88.78 for females and the type of the head belongs to Hyperbrachycephaly. The breadth-height index of head is 65.03 for male sand 66.20 for females and belongs to T apeinoccphaly. The length--height index of head is 73.5Sand 74.69 for males and females, respectively, and the type of the head belongs to Hypsiccphaly. The average statures are 1684.6mm for males and 1 578.8mm for females.they belong to the Ultramedium and high types according to Martin's classification in both of males and females.
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    Discussions on the excavation and recording system of Paleolithic sites
    ZHANG Yueshu, LI Feng, WANG Xiaomin, CHEN Fuyou, GAO Xing
    Acta Anthropologica Sinica    2021, 40 (02): 181-193.   DOI: 10.16359/j.cnki.cn11-1963/q.2019.0075
    Abstract176)   HTML27)    PDF (2232KB)(165)       Save

    With the development of fieldwork techniques and research concept, great improvements have been archived in the excavation and record method of Paleolithic archaeology. The excavating method reformed at the Zhoukoudian site in 1930s is significant in the history of Paleolithic excavation in China, which laid solid foundation for Paleolithic excavation and research. In the early the 1990s, archaeological investigations in the Nihewan basin conducted by the Sino-American joint team introduced standardized fieldwork methods and procedures to Paleolithic research in China. In the 21st century, the application of new technologies and concepts helps archaeologists in the country extract information more scientifically and comprehensively. This study is about the excavation history and methodological development at the Zhoukoudian site and sties in the Nihewan basin, by briefly reviewing the changes of the excavating and recording methods. Combined the valuable information from the previous excavations with the current standard of Paleolithic excavation, we take the Donggutuo site as an example to illustrate the general trend of fieldwork methodological development in Paleolithic and advocate establishing a standard excavating and recording system in Paleolithic archaeology of China.

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